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Terms in this set (65)
the system that covers everything
largest organ in the body
3000 sq. in. 7% body weight.
epidermis- thick epithelium
dermis- fibrous-- nerves, BV, lymph, collagen, fiber
hypodermis- subcutaneous fascia and fatty tissue
functions of the integument
semipermeable barrier(impermeable to water and permeable to lipid soluble substances)
vitamin D synthesis
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
includes: spot desmosomes, lagerhans cell, and keratinocyte
keratin= hard tough molecule that strengthens cells
5 strata of epidermis
"baby spits, grandpa loses cool"
stem cells; melanocytes
-merkel cell & disc
keratinocytes producing tonofilaments; langerhans cells(antigen presenting cells)
thickening keratinocytes filling with keratohyalin and glycolipid sealant
dead compacted keratinocytes-thick skin only
dead scale-like keratinocytes
4 cell types of the epidermis
keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, merkel cells
produce keratin, most abundant, found in all layers
produce melanin in the stratum basale
macrophages part of the immune system, in stratum spinous
part of sensory receptors for TOUCH, in stratum basale
Covers most of the body
Has four layers of keratinocytes
has an extra layer (stratum lucidum) on palms and soles
richly supplied BV and nerves
extends from epidermis to hypodermis
fibroblasts produce matrix--active in wound closing and scarring
80% of thickness of dermis, dense irregular connective tissue
loose connective tissue
langer cleavage lines
represent less dense areas between collagen bundles in the dermis
epidermal ridges are established at about 17 weeks of prenatal development; they reflect the underlying dermal papillae.
the unique patterns of epidermal ridges is used as a means of personal ID such as fingerprints. *****
binds the skin to underlying muscles and organs
normal skin coloration
interaction of 3 pigments
melanin (yellow red brown black) in epidermal cells and melanocytes
carotene (yellow orange) in epidermal cells and subcutaneous fat
hemoglobin (pink red purple blue) in dermal vessels
melanin protects skin cells from the harmful effects of UV radiation
pigment cells derived from neural crest
they inject melanosomes into surrounding epidermal cells.
include cutaneous glands, hair and hair follicles, and nails
eccrine sweat glands
merocrine mode of secretion (exocytosis)**
independent of hair follicles***
simple coiled tubular glands
widely distributed on body; most abundant on palms, soles, and forehead. absent on nipples and parts of external genitalia.
secrete a watery, colorless, odorless ("true sweat"). swat is 99% water with some salts and traces of urea and ammonia. it helps prevent growth of bacteria on the skin.
apocrine secretion into hair follicles**
simple coiled tubular glands; larger than eccrine. restricted distribution--axillary, anal, and genital regions. secrete a more viscous, milk-colored sweat who's lipid and protein components become odorous when degraded by skin bacteria (BO). are stimulated by sex hormones (androgens) may be analogous to sexual scent glands of other animals.
modified apocrine sweat glands***
located in lining of external ear canal along with sebaceous glands. secretion of these glands plus sebum from sebaceous glands forms ear wax to trap dust and repel insects.
highly modified aprocrine sweat glands**
secrete milk under hormonal stimulation
sebaceous oil glands
simple branched acinar glands. open into hair follicles mostly.y sebum is an oily substance that lubricates skin and hair and inhibits the growth of skin bacteria. are stimulated by sex hormones, mostly androgens. may become hyperactive during puberty.
comedones (acne lesions)
whitehead: a sebaceous gland in which the sebum is blocked and appears on the surface of the skin
blackhead: a blocked sebaceous gland in which sebum has oxidized.
pimple/zit: infected comedo-- bacterial breakdown of sebum can lead to inflammation and scarring.
most parts of the body except:
regions of thick skin (palms of hands, soles of feet)
parts of external genitalia
hair follicles are
down growths of the epidermis
finger and toe nails are modified skin
blood supply of integument
by liberating sweat at its surface and by adjusting the flow of blood in the dermis - regulates body temperature; blood vessels dilate (become wider) to increase heat loss; blood vessels constrict (become narrow) to reduce heat loss
bare nerve endings
pain, temperature, fine touch
hair root plexus
regrowth of functional tissue through mitotic division to restore functioning
ex: reepithelization of a skin wound***
patchy filling in of damaged tissue by fibrous CT elements to fill in defects with scar tissue.
ex: forming a dermal scar tissue in a skin wound****
usually sloughs off naturally but may require surgical removal
fills large wounds as they heal. is soft, moist, and red.
highly vascularized with new capillary beds.
fibrous CT matrix supporting wound healing cells.
fibroblasts fill wound with collagen. this makes the healed tissue stiff and pale colored. scars in the skin are not fully functional. they do not contain sweat glands or hair follicles.
healing by primary intention
clean wound; appose wound margins with suture
clean incision, suture, "HAIRLINE" scar.
healing by secondary intention
infected wound, leave it open, and myofibroblasts will play a key role in repair
gaping wound with blood clot, granulation tissue fills in wound, large scar.
pressure or bed sores
1st: epidermis only
2nd: epidermis and dermis
3rd: plus hypodermis
4th: all 3 skin layers plus underlying tissues.
1st degree burn
damage to epidermis: erythema and pain. (tanning)
2nd degree burn
damage to epidermis and upper parts of dermis: erythema, blisters, pain
3rd degree burn
dermis is destroyed
eschar, edema, no pain
burns- rule of nines
a means of estimating total area of burns
burns are CRITICAL if they are:
1. more than 10% of the body with 3rd degree burns
2. more than 25% of the body with 2nd degree
3. 3rd degree burns on the face, hands, or feet.
strawberry birth mark is an immature one.
also the guys face is one.
a deregulation of keratinocyte growth raised, scaly, silver-colored lesion
Excessive development of hard, keratinized tissue on the skin.
actinic (solar) keratosis
a pre cancerous lesion
acne like bumps more common in young children
basal cell carcinoma
Arises from the basal layer of the epidermis. It is the most common type of skin cancer and rarely metastasizes, most common SKIN CANCER!
squamous cell carcinoma
arises from squamous cells, may grow rapidly, will metastasize if not removed.
most dangerous type of skin cancer; metastasizes rapidly and into internal organs via capillaries.
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