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help regulate chemical reactions in the body

which statement about vitamins is true

occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm

which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins

water soluble are less likely to be toxic

water soluble and fat soluble vitamins differ in the following way

most scientists believe we have discovered all vitamins relevant to humans

which of the following is true aboue our current knowledge about vitamins

a fortified breakfast cereal such as Total Raisen Bran

If you wanted to add significant quantities of vitamins and minerals to your diet from the food you eat, a good choice would be


Megadoses are defined as greater than___times the RDA.

the FDA does not regulate all vitamin and mineral supplements closely

which of the following is true about the regulation of the production and sale of vitamin and mineral supplements?

after absorption , they are transported through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream

which of the following is true about the absorption , transport and storage of fat soluble vitamins?

vitamins A and D

Which nutrients are most toxic if consumed in excess amounts over long periods of time?

increases the risk of developing pellegra or beriberi

all the following are true statements regarding fat malabsorption EXCEPT

carotenoids can be converted retinoids

which of the following is true about the forms of vitamin A?


Most vitamin A is stored in the


which fat soluble vitamin is important for the health of epithelial cells b/c it promotes mucus production


which of the following is the best source of preformed vitamin A


which of the following is a good source of provitamn A?


this vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida

vitamin A

dark green or orange vegetables and/or fruits are recommended at least every other day to provide a source of


an average serving of which food provides the most vitamin A?

vitamin D

the nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is

it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun

Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

prevents osteoporosis

all the following are characterictics of vitamin D EXCEPT

Vitamin D

Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

Fortified milk

the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is

calcium deposits in the kidneys and other organs

the major effect of taking high doses of vitamin D is


Vitamin E functions as an

Decreasing LDL oxidation

Current scientific evidence indicates that vitamin E might play a role in preventing atherosclerosis by

corn oil

a rich source of vitamin E is

vitamin K

the nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is


in general, excess amounts of water soluble vitamins are excreted via the

are stored in the liver

all the following are true of B vitamins EXCEPT


the vitamin that functions as a coenzyme, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism, is


Thiamin is distributed in small amounts in many foods. A nutrient dense source of thiamin is

milk and dairy products

the foods that provide the largest source of riboflavin in the American diet are


some niacin is formed in the body from

pantothenic acid

the vitamin incorporated in coenzyme A is

is very unlikely because of its widespread availability

a pantothenic acid deficiency


intestinal bacteria can make this B vitamin in adequate amounts to meet human needs


what vitamin plays an essential role in amino acid metabolism

meat,fish, poultry

the best vitamin B6 food sources include

orange juice

a rich folate food source would be

green leafy vegetables

generally, good folate sources are

it is only found in animal products

Acquiring sufficient vitamin B12 from the diet may be a problem to vegans because

Vitamin C

formation and maintenance of collgen requires


drying of the cornea due to vitamn A deficiency is called

vitamin D

the childhood disease rickets is due to a _____ deficiency


What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency?


Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease


Pellagra is characterized by all the following EXCEPT

Vitamin C

Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

Vitamin B12 and folate

Vitamins involved in red blood cell formation are


water constitutes _____% of the body weight

ion concentration

the amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by

phosphate and potassium

intracellular water volume depends primarily on the concentration of

sodium and chloride

the two most significant extracellular ions are


water regulates body temperature through heat loss via


the body's need for water is approximately ____ milliliter per kcalorie.

5 cups

Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds. How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids

which of the following is NOT true about the regulation of fluid in the body ?

trace minerals are needed in amounts of 100 mg per day or less

minerals are classified in the following way

minerals from animal products are better absorbed than those from plants

Which of the following is true about mineral bioavailability?

2,000 to 4,000

the typical American diet contains appoximately____mgs of sodium.

increase urinary excretion of sodium

Consumption of a diet high in salt by a healthy individual will

it maintains the ability to see at night

Potassium performs all the following functions EXCEPT

loss of appetite, heart arrhythmias, muscle cramps

the symptoms of potassium deficiency include

fruits and vegetables

Potassium is found in the largest quantities in

bones and teeth

in the body 99% of calcium is found in

appetite regulation

which of the following is NOT a function of calcium?

milk and dairy products

the most nutrient dense calcium food source is


according to the RDA, the mineral that you need in the largest amount is

it is important for blood glucose regulation

phosphorus functions in all the following ways EXCEPT


the mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is

it is important for nerve and heart function

what is magnesium's primary function?

whole grains

Magnesium is provided in the diet primarily by


we get most of the sulfur in our diet from


in some cultures, pots and pans used in cooking may contribute some ____ to the diet.

absorption in the small intestine

The amount of iron in the body is mostly regulated by


the best food source of iron is

sirloin steak

The best iron source is


a reduced sense of taste and smell is associated with a deficiency of


The best zinc source is

it acts as an antioxident

which of the following is true about selenium?


A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of

thyroid hormone synthesis

Copper's functions consist of all the following EXCEPT


Which of the following is a good copper source?


This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.

impaired glucose tolerance

A suboptimal intake of chromium in individuals in the US has been linked to

whole grains

which of the following is a good chromium source.

a components of many different enzymes

Manganese functions as

eat lots of prepackaged and canned foods

As far as diet is concerned, a person wanting to reduce the risk of developing hypertension would want to do all the following EXCEPT


in women, bone loss begins around the age

the energy expended when resting, but awake, and the eating has not recently taken place

Basal metabolism is

it represents about 60% to 70% of total kcalories used by the body during a day

which of the following is true about basal metabolism?

a low kcalorie

which of the following is NOT associated with an increase in basal metabolism?

energy content of food

all of the following contribute to total energy expenditure EXCEPT

includes daily activities as seemingly insignificant as fidgeting

Physical activity

refers to the extra energy used during digestion, absorption and metabolism

the thremic effect of food

5% to 10%

The kcalorie cost of the thermic effect of food is ____ of energy consumed.

body mass index

body weight in kilograms divided by height squared in meters yield

body mass index

which of the following is NOT a way to estimate body fat?

about 5% for adults

The success of weight reduction programs has been reported to be

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