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Engl 1302 Midterm
Terms in this set (45)
an appeal to credibility. This is the way a speaker (or writer) presents herself to the audience. You can build credibility by citing professional sources, using content-specific language, and by showing evidence of your ethical, knowledgeable background.
an appeal to logic. This is the way a speaker appeals to the audience through practicality and hard evidence. You can develop logos by presenting data and statistics, and by crafting a clear claim with a logically-sequenced argument.
an appeal to emotion. This is the way a speaker appeals to the audience through emotion, pity, or passions. The idea is usually to evoke and strengthen feelings already present within the audience. This can be achieved through story-telling, vivid imagery, and an impassioned voice.
an appeal made through the adept use of time. This is the way a speaker appeals to the audience through notions of time. It is also considered to be the appropriate or opportune time for a speaker to insert herself into a conversation or discourse, using the three appeals listed above. A Kairotic appeal can be made through calls to immediate action, presenting an opportunity as temporary, and by describing a specific moment as propitious or ideal.
using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.
Figure of balance in which two contrasting ideas are intentionally juxtaposed, usually through parallel structure; a contrasting of opposing ideas in adjacent phrases, clauses, or sentences.
rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis.
term for the repetition of words derived from the same root but with different endings.
a figure of speech consisting of the use of the name of one thing for that of another of which it is an attribute or with which it is associated
Toulmin Model of Argument
a style of argumentation that breaks arguments down into six component parts: claim, grounds, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, and backing.
the assertion that authors would like to prove to their audience. It is, in other words, the main argument.
the evidence and facts that help support the claim.
either implied or stated explicitly, is the assumption that links the grounds to the claim.
shows that a claim may not be true in all circumstances
an acknowledgement of another valid view of the situation.
refers to any additional support of the warrant.
a rhetorical device that starts an argument with a reference to something general, and from this it draws a conclusion about something more specific. a three-part set of statements: a major statement or premise. a minor statement or premise.
a major premise
a generalization about a class or genus—all laws—a premise that primary audience, will accept without challenge.
The minor premise
makes a generalization about a member or species of that group, therefore, the deductive logic runs, if the major premise is true, and if the minor premise is true, then it necessarily follows that the argument is true.
Statements used as reasons in an argument
a method of reasoning that moves from specific instances to a general conclusion.
A process of reasoning that starts with a general truth, applies that truth to. a specific case (resulting in a second piece of evidence), and from those two pieces of evidence (premises), draws a specific conclusion about the specific case.
formulating someone else's ideas in your own words.
to condense a text to its main points and to do so in your own words.
any statements that refer to measurable effects that can be proved right or wrong.
asserts that there is a relationship between two events such that one is the effect of the other. A causal claim takes the form of "x causes y," with x referring to the cause and y referring to the effect.
argues that certain conditions should exist, or that something should or should not be done, in order to solve a problem.
Non- Sequitar Latin for "it does not follow") (Logic)
In this type of fallacy, the conclusion does not follow from the evidence and warrant.
Straw Man ( Logic)
A straw man involves attributing a n argument to an opponent that the opponent never made and then refuting it in a devastating way.
Hasty Generalization ( Logic)
Sometimes arguers 'jump to conclusions' by basing their conclusion on too few examples to support their claim.
False Dilemma or Either or Fallacy ( Logic)
Some arguments are oversimplified and presented as a black or white, either -or choices when there are actually other alternatives.
False Analogy ( Logic)
This fallacy results in assuming that because one thing resembles another in some respects, the two subjects also resemble each other in all important respects which may not be true.
Slippery Slope (emotion)
This fallacy is a scare tactic that suggests that if we allow one thing to happen, we will immediately be sliding down a slippery slope of disaster.
Post Hoc (False Cause) ( Logic)
This fallacy is the result of assuming that because one thing preceded another, the former caused the latter to happen.
Red Herring ( Logic)
the result of attempting to misdirect the discussion by raising an essentially unrelated or irrelevant point.
Stacking the Deck (Logic)
Stacking evidence to represent only one side of the issue that clearly has two sides gives a distorted impression of the issue.
Ad Hominem ( Latin for "to the man") (ethos)
This argument attacks a person's character rather than the issue at hand.
Bandwagon Appeal (emotional)
The argument suggests that everyone is doing something, so you should too.
Ad Misericordium (Latin for "To pity") (emotional)
Manipulating reader's emotions in order to lead them to draw unjustified conclusions.
Ad Populam (Latin for "to the people") (emotional)
Using scare words or glittering generalities to manipulate the audience.
Appeal to False Authority ( logic)
Using the opinion of authorities unfairly to persuade the audience.
MLA works cited for book
The basic form for a book citation is: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.
MLA works cited for an article in an Anthology (edited work)
The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.
MLA works cited for an article in a journal
contains the author(s); article title; journal name; volume and issue; month and year; page range; and a DOI if accessed online. In the in-text citation, include the author's last name and the page number.
MLA works cited for an internet article
Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.
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