Body Systems

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epithelial tissue

sheets of cells that cover the body's suface and form the lining of the internal organs

connective tissue

hold together and support other tissues and cushion, insulate, and connect organs

nervous system

the system that forms the communication system that helps the body respond to the enviroment


a nerve cell that transmits signals


the outermost layer of skin made of mostly dead epitheliat cells that flake off


a pigmented protein that fives the skin color


the layer of skin that lies beneath and supports the epidermis

skeletal muscle

a voluntary muscle connected to bone

smooth muscle

an involuntary muscle found on most organs

cardiac muscle

an involuntary muscle that helps your heart pump blood


the internal stability maintained by the body


an area where one bone meets another


a strong fibrous tissue in a joint, attatching bone to bone


dense tissue attatching bone to muscle


signal molecules released by glands to help regulate the body systems

interstitial fluid

aqueous solution filling space between cells in a tissue

alimentary canal

the tube in which digestion occurs starting at the mouth and ending at the anus


a chewed clump of food that travels the alimentary canal


a series of muscle contractions that push through the esophogus


acidic mixture of food and stomach fluids that travel from the stomach to the small intestine


small fingerlike projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients


blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart


microscopic blood vessels connecting arteries and veins allowing exchange between blood and interstitial fluid


blood vessels carrying blood to the heart


fluid from blood lost to interstitial fluid that is collected in the lymphatic vessels and reused in blood


the artery that supplies oxygen rich blood to the body; on left side of the heart

pulmonary circuit

carry blood from the heart to the lungs to collect oxygen and back to the heart to be dispersed through the body

systemic circuit

carry oxygen rich blood from the heart, to the body and back to the heart


solution in blood containing water, salts, and proteins


a protein in red blood cells that stores oxygen


small fragments of blood cells that stick to a damaged blood cells and release clotting factors to form fibrin and trap red blood cells from leaving vessels


the throat; passage ways for air and food cross


covers air passage when swallowing to prevent water and food from entering lungs


the air passageway to the lungs


sheet of muscle forming the bottom wall of the chest cavity allowing breathing


disease causing organisms or viruses

germ theory of disease

a theory stating that infectious disease is caused by pathogens that spread among organisms


chemical alarm released by mast cells which causes blood vessels to increase blood flow and the number of white blood cells there


a molecule on the surface of cancer cells, pollen, fungi, bacteria, and viruses that provokes an immune response


proteins found on the surface of white blood cells that attck certain antigens


a nonharmful does of a pathogen to stimulate immune response and formation of memory cells to protect from a real exposure to the pathogen

active immunity

when the body produces antibodies against infection

passive immunity

when the body recieves antibodies for a disease from another source


an abnormal oversensitivity to an otherwise nonharmful antigen known as an allergen


compound of ammonia and carbon dioxide excreted from the body by the kidneys


the removal of nitrogen-containing wastes from the body

endocrine glands

glands that secret hormones


microscopic filtering tubules in the kidney consisting of one tubule and its blood vessels


the system that coordinates the body's activities by detecting stimulii and directing the body's responses


the system that provides body support, protects certain organs such as the brain and lungs, and works with the muscular system in body movements


the system that enables body movement and facial expressions essentail to human communication


the system that covers the body and protects it from injury, infection, excessive heat/cold, and drying out


the system that delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells and transports waste products to excretory organs


the system that exhchanges gases with the environment


the system that ingests food, breaks it down into smaller chamical units for use in the body and eliminates undigested material


the system that removes waste products from the body and regulates the chemical makeup of the blood


the system that secretes hormones that affect the functons of target cells and thereby regulates the activites of the other organ systems


the system that reproduces gametes; the female system also provides the organs needed to support a developing embyro


the system that defends the body against infections and cancer cells; supports the function of the circulatory sustem by returning fluid to blood vessels near heart


protein that makes up hair and nails

central nervous system

the part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal chord

peripheral nervous system

the part of the nervous system that includes nerves

sensory receptors

the part of the nervous system that includes the nose, mouth, eyes, ears, and skin

nose/mouth> pharynx> trachea> lungs

the order of the respiratory system

rectum and anus

organs of elimination


taking food in


machanically and chemically breaking down food


cells take up nutrients


removal of undigested material


the part of digestion where the bolus goes before the throat


prevents food from entering the trachea


the part of digestion that moves the bolus to the stomach through peristalsis

gastric juice

mixture of mucus, hydrochloric acid and enzymes that breaks down food

small intestine

the part of digestion where digestion is completed and absortion begins


makes bile to separate fat


stores bile and releases it into the small intestine to mix with chyme


releases juices into the small intestine that contain enzymes for breaking down carbs, proteins, and lipids

large intestine

reabsorbs water from undigested matieral


the gland that controls biorhythms in some animals and control the onset of puberty in humans


the gland that stimulates metabolic rate and is essential to normal growth and development


the gland that stimulates growth and stimulates secretion of hormones from other glands


the gland that stimulates development of female secondary sex characteristics, stimulates growth of sex organs at puberty, and prompts monthly preparation of uterus for pregnancy


the gland that the major area where the nervous and endocrine systems interact


the gland that controls blood glucose levels and determines the fate of glycogen


the gland that initiates stress responses, increases heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate, dilates blood vessels, mobilizes fat and raises blood sugar levels


the gland that promotes production and maturation of white blood cells


the gland that stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics, stimulates growth spurt at puberty, and stimulates spermatogenesis


the gland that increases blood calcium level, stimulates calcium reabsortion and activates vitamin D

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