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Sociology Exam 2
Terms in this set (46)
What is a social group?
two or more people who identify with and interact with one another
What is a social category?
people with a status in common
What is a crowd?
Loosely formed collection of people in one place
What is a primary group (according to Charles H. Cooley)?
A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships
What is a secondary group (according to Charles H. Cooley)?
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
Leadership styles-Authoritarian leadership, democratic leadership, Laissez-faire leadership.
Authoritarian leadership: focusses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision making and demands that group members obey orders.
Democratic leadership: is more expressive, making a point of including everyone in the decision-making process.
Laissez-faire leadership: allows the group to function more or less on its own.
What is group conformity?
groups influence the behavior of their members
What is an in-group?
a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
What is an out-group?
a social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition
What is a social network?
a web of weak social ties
What is the "McDonaldization of society"?
the organizational principles that underlie McDonald's dominate our entire society
What are the basic organizational principles of the McDonaldization of society (according to George Ritzer)?
What is Deviance?
the recognized violation of cultural norms
What is crime?
The violation of society's formally enacted criminal law
What is social control?
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
What is criminal justice system?
the organizations-police, courts, and prison officials-that respond to alleged violations of the law
What is the biological theory of deviance?
Genetic factors especially defective genes are a strong predictor of adult crime and violence
What is the psychological theory of deviance?
psychological explanations of deviance focus on individual abnormality-to a personality that controls deviant impulses
What is the sociological theory of deviance (social foundations of deviance)?
Deviance varies according to cultural norms. People become deviant as others define them that way. Both norms and the way people define rule breaking involve social power.
What is the structural-functional theory of deviance (according to Emile Durkheim)?
Deviance is a necessary part of social organization
What is the strain theory of deviance (according to Robert k. Merton)?
the extent and type of deviance depend on whether a society provides the means to achieve cultural goals
What is the labeling theory of deviance?
deviance results not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions.
What is the differential association theory of deviance (according to Edwin Sutherland)?
A person's tendency towards deviance depends on the amount of contact with others who encourage or reject conventional behavior
What is the control theory of deviance (according to Travis Hirschi)?
Social control depends on people's anticipating the consequences of their behavior
What is the social-conflict theory of deviance?
people we tend to define as deviants are typically not as bad or harmful as they are powerless.
What is stigma?
A powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
What is the medicalization of deviance?
the transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
What is white-collar crime?
crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations
What are victimless crimes?
violations of law in which there are no obvious crimes
Why do we punish wrongdoers?
What is retribution?
an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused but the crime
What is deterrence?
the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
What is rehabilitation?
A program for reforming the offender to prevent later offences
What is societal protection?
Rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution.
What is social stratification?
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
What are the principles of social stratification?
-A trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences
-carries over from generation to generation
-universal but variable
-involves not just inequality but beliefs as well
What are closed systems social stratification?
Allow little change in social position
ex) caste system in India
What are open systems of stratification?
Permit much more social mobility
ex) class system
What is social mobility?
a change in position within the social hierarchy.
What is the social class structure in the United States?
How does social stratification affect our lives?
values and attitudes
family and gender
What is relative poverty?
the lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more
What is absolute poverty?
a lack of resources that is life-threatening
What is "blame the poor" perspective as a cause of poverty?
poor are mostly responsible for their own poverty
What is "blame the society" perspective as a cause of poverty?
society is primarily responsible for the poverty
What is conspicuous consumption?
buying and using products because of the statement they make about social position
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