OHCAC - Observe, Hypothesize, Collect data, Analyze, Conclude
explanation of phenomenon
description of phenomenon
manufactures RNA in ribosomes, assembles subunits
genetic material, info storage and processing
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
organelles that package cellular materials and transport them within the cell or out of the cell
gives cell shape, made of protein fibers, helps cell move
convert sunlight to energy
digestion and storage in plants; lysosomes in animals
Osmosis and diffusion
requires no energy
special pores, high to low concentration
against gradient, requires pumps
substrates bind and react
Breaks down into smaller units
Combines into larger units
Primary protein structure
Secondary protein structure
alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets
Tertiary protein structure
Quaternary protein structure
Combo of 3D
Glucose goes in. Yields 2 Pyruvate and 8 ATP
occurs in cytosol
Acetyl CoA goes to NADH and 38 ATP
occurs in matrix
Pyruvate goes to Acetyl CoA. Releases CO2
occurs in matrix
Electron transport chain
Energy released by redox reactions pumps protons across membrane, creating a protein gradient. Gradual steps. NADH and FADH2 act as electron carriers.
occurs in cristae
Water + NADP + H+ + ADP + PO4- = O2 + NADH + ATP
3CO2 + 6ATP + 6NADPH = 1 G3P + RuBP
G3P converts to Starch and Sucrose\
occurs in stroma
3Carbon compund + CO2 -> 4 Carbon compound
occurs in stacked grana
occurs in unstacked grana
Longest, growth occurs. G1 checkpoint requires cell to be healthy and large.
similar to G1, checks DNA and replication for errors
replication of DNA
synthesis of RNA from DNA template
occurs in the nucleus
mRNA translated to amino acids
occurs on a ribosome
Small subunit holds mRNA in place
Large subunit helps peptide-bond formation
Cytoplasmic, secreted, and membrane-bound proteins
carries the info from the DNA transcription
carries the mRNA. think translation
part of the ribosome
primary structure- sequence of bases
secondary structure - 2 phosphodiester linked antiparallel nucleotide strands (base pairs) twisted into a double helix. The molecule is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in its interior and by hydrogen bonding between the complementary bas pairs A-T and G-C.
Both strands synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction because polymerase only works that way. Starts at leading, works towards lagging (think a rainbow shape)
Made up of: pentose sugar, nitrongenous base, phosphate group
one glycerol and three fatty acids
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