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organelles that package cellular materials and transport them within the cell or out of the cell
Electron transport chain
Energy released by redox reactions pumps protons across membrane, creating a protein gradient. Gradual steps. NADH and FADH2 act as electron carriers.
occurs in cristae
3CO2 + 6ATP + 6NADPH = 1 G3P + RuBP
G3P converts to Starch and Sucrose\
occurs in stroma
mRNA translated to amino acids
occurs on a ribosome
Small subunit holds mRNA in place
Large subunit helps peptide-bond formation
primary structure- sequence of bases
secondary structure - 2 phosphodiester linked antiparallel nucleotide strands (base pairs) twisted into a double helix. The molecule is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in its interior and by hydrogen bonding between the complementary bas pairs A-T and G-C.
Both strands synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction because polymerase only works that way. Starts at leading, works towards lagging (think a rainbow shape)
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