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51 terms

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Scientific method
OHCAC - Observe, Hypothesize, Collect data, Analyze, Conclude
Hypothesis
proposed explanation
Theory
explanation of phenomenon
Law
description of phenomenon
Nucleolus
manufactures RNA in ribosomes, assembles subunits
Mitochondria
Respiration, ATP
Ribosomes
Manufacture proteins
Rough ER
process proteins
Smooth ER
lipids
Nucleus
genetic material, info storage and processing
Chromatin
long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes
Golgi bodies
organelles that package cellular materials and transport them within the cell or out of the cell
cytoskeleton
gives cell shape, made of protein fibers, helps cell move
Cell membrane
selective permeability
Chloroplasts
convert sunlight to energy
Vacuoles
digestion and storage in plants; lysosomes in animals
Osmosis and diffusion
requires no energy
Ion channels
special pores, high to low concentration
Active transport
against gradient, requires pumps
Enzyme
protein catalysts
Active sites
substrates bind and react
Substrate
reactant molecules
Catabolism
Breaks down into smaller units
Anabolism
Combines into larger units
Primary protein structure
Amino acids
Secondary protein structure
alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets
Tertiary protein structure
3D
Quaternary protein structure
Combo of 3D
Glycolysis
Glucose goes in. Yields 2 Pyruvate and 8 ATP

occurs in cytosol
Kreb's cycle
Acetyl CoA goes to NADH and 38 ATP

occurs in matrix
Acetyl CoA
Pyruvate goes to Acetyl CoA. Releases CO2

occurs in matrix
Electron transport chain
Energy released by redox reactions pumps protons across membrane, creating a protein gradient. Gradual steps. NADH and FADH2 act as electron carriers.

occurs in cristae
Light reaction
Water + NADP + H+ + ADP + PO4- = O2 + NADH + ATP
Calvin cycle
3CO2 + 6ATP + 6NADPH = 1 G3P + RuBP

G3P converts to Starch and Sucrose\

occurs in stroma
C4 cycle
3Carbon compund + CO2 -> 4 Carbon compound
Photosystem II
occurs in stacked grana
Photosystem I
occurs in unstacked grana
G1 phase
Longest, growth occurs. G1 checkpoint requires cell to be healthy and large.
G2 phase
similar to G1, checks DNA and replication for errors
S phase
replication of DNA
M phase
mitotic phase
Transcription
synthesis of RNA from DNA template

occurs in the nucleus
Translation
mRNA translated to amino acids

occurs on a ribosome

Small subunit holds mRNA in place
Large subunit helps peptide-bond formation
Cytoplasmic, secreted, and membrane-bound proteins
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mRNA
carries the info from the DNA transcription
tRNA
carries the mRNA. think translation
rRNA
part of the ribosome
DNA
primary structure- sequence of bases
secondary structure - 2 phosphodiester linked antiparallel nucleotide strands (base pairs) twisted into a double helix. The molecule is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in its interior and by hydrogen bonding between the complementary bas pairs A-T and G-C.

Both strands synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction because polymerase only works that way. Starts at leading, works towards lagging (think a rainbow shape)
Nucleic acids
Made up of: pentose sugar, nitrongenous base, phosphate group
Proteins
amino acids
Triglyceride
one glycerol and three fatty acids