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Scientific method

OHCAC - Observe, Hypothesize, Collect data, Analyze, Conclude


proposed explanation


explanation of phenomenon


description of phenomenon


manufactures RNA in ribosomes, assembles subunits


Respiration, ATP


Manufacture proteins

Rough ER

process proteins

Smooth ER



genetic material, info storage and processing


long strands of DNA found in the eukaryotic cell nucleus; condense to form chromosomes

Golgi bodies

organelles that package cellular materials and transport them within the cell or out of the cell


gives cell shape, made of protein fibers, helps cell move

Cell membrane

selective permeability


convert sunlight to energy


digestion and storage in plants; lysosomes in animals

Osmosis and diffusion

requires no energy

Ion channels

special pores, high to low concentration

Active transport

against gradient, requires pumps


protein catalysts

Active sites

substrates bind and react


reactant molecules


Breaks down into smaller units


Combines into larger units

Primary protein structure

Amino acids

Secondary protein structure

alpha helixes and beta pleated sheets

Tertiary protein structure


Quaternary protein structure

Combo of 3D


Glucose goes in. Yields 2 Pyruvate and 8 ATP

occurs in cytosol

Kreb's cycle

Acetyl CoA goes to NADH and 38 ATP

occurs in matrix

Acetyl CoA

Pyruvate goes to Acetyl CoA. Releases CO2

occurs in matrix

Electron transport chain

Energy released by redox reactions pumps protons across membrane, creating a protein gradient. Gradual steps. NADH and FADH2 act as electron carriers.

occurs in cristae

Light reaction

Water + NADP + H+ + ADP + PO4- = O2 + NADH + ATP

Calvin cycle

3CO2 + 6ATP + 6NADPH = 1 G3P + RuBP

G3P converts to Starch and Sucrose\

occurs in stroma

C4 cycle

3Carbon compund + CO2 -> 4 Carbon compound

Photosystem II

occurs in stacked grana

Photosystem I

occurs in unstacked grana

G1 phase

Longest, growth occurs. G1 checkpoint requires cell to be healthy and large.

G2 phase

similar to G1, checks DNA and replication for errors

S phase

replication of DNA

M phase

mitotic phase


synthesis of RNA from DNA template

occurs in the nucleus


mRNA translated to amino acids

occurs on a ribosome

Small subunit holds mRNA in place
Large subunit helps peptide-bond formation

Cytoplasmic, secreted, and membrane-bound proteins



carries the info from the DNA transcription


carries the mRNA. think translation


part of the ribosome


primary structure- sequence of bases
secondary structure - 2 phosphodiester linked antiparallel nucleotide strands (base pairs) twisted into a double helix. The molecule is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in its interior and by hydrogen bonding between the complementary bas pairs A-T and G-C.

Both strands synthesized in the 5' to 3' direction because polymerase only works that way. Starts at leading, works towards lagging (think a rainbow shape)

Nucleic acids

Made up of: pentose sugar, nitrongenous base, phosphate group


amino acids


one glycerol and three fatty acids

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