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ANTRO EXAM 2
Terms in this set (61)
the widening scale of cross-cultural interactions caused by the rapid movement of money, people, goods, images, and ideas within nations and across national boundaries.
Illustrates how people change their cultures because of connections with others. • The process of globalization affects us all.
Two effects of globalization?
early twentieth-century Boasian anthropologists who held that cultural characteristics result from either internal historical dynamism or a spread (diffusion) of cultural attributes from other societies.
does not imply that everyone is an equal participant in the process of globalization
refers to relationships that extend beyond nation-state boundaries but do not necessarily cover the whole world. Still, "globalization" is a useful (and widely used) term, indicating persistent interactions across widening scales of social activity in areas such as communication, migration, and finances
people who leave their homes to work for a time in other regions or countries
people who leave their countries with no expectation of ever returning
people who migrate because of political oppression or war, usually with legal permission to stay in a different country
people who are expelled by the authorities of their home countries
world systems theory
the notion that capitalism has expanded on the basis of unequal exchange throughout the world, creating a global market and global division of labor, dividing the world between a dominant "core" and a dependent "periphery
at the expense of periphery nations
how do core nations develop economies?
labor and raw materials for the core's consumption, resulting in the periphery's poverty, underdevelopment, and dependency on the core
what does the periphery provide?
Europe and the People Without History
Challenged anthropology's focus on small, local groups of people, neglecting the world system's influence
the social, economic, and political factors that "push" people to migrate from their homes and that "pull" them to host countries
spatially extended social networks that spans multiple countries
cultures of migration
the cultural attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic values that shape decision-making processes around, and experiences of, migration
the field that studies the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism. • Shows linkage between local relations and transnational levels
the creation and assertion of highly particular, often place-based, identities and communities. • e.g. sapeurs in the Democratic Republic of Congo
may draw from transnationalism but get expressed with respect to local culture
claimed to bring "civilization" to the "uncivilized" parts of the world. • e.g. 1949, US President Truman sought to help the "underdeveloped" world. • "Development" is promoted by the United Nations
are the model for the "ideal
the application of anthropological knowledge and research methods to the practical aspects of shaping and implementing development projects
anthropology of development
the field of study within anthropology concerned with understanding the cultural conditions for proper development or, alternatively, the negative impacts of development projects
does little to reduce poverty and only expands bureaucratic state power at the expense of local communities
suggests that local traditions are gradually fading as Western ideas replace those in non-Western communities
the cultural emphasis on efficiency, calculability, predictability, tight control over production, and mechanized labor over human labor, characteristics of fast-food restaurants
to impose products and beliefs on the rest of the world
the promotion of one culture over others, through formal policy or less formal means, like the spread of technology and material culture
the mixture of norms and values that extend across national boundaries
the persistent cultural mixing that has no predetermined direction or end point
• Cultural mixing is a superficial, with reality moving to convergence. • Theory ignores political power, economic power, and inequality.
Critics of hybridization?
• Convergence "fits" some contexts. • Hybridization is occurring everywhere.
How do Anthropologists assert that these theories needn't be mutually exclusive?
an ethnographic research strategy of following connections, associations, and putative relationships from place to place.
• There is tremendous cultural variation in how people eat.
• Humans are omnivores (Lt. "to devour everything")
• Our diets are limited by availability, biological restrictions, cultural practices, and preferences.
• The human diet is fluid and adaptable.
why is there no universal human diet?
the continuation of lactase production beyond early childhood that allows a person to digest milk and dairy products. • Lactase is an enzyme that allows some people (with dairying ancestors) to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk. • "Lactase impersistence"
studies how different societies understand, interact with, and make changes to nature
consists of culturally specific images, knowledge, and concepts of the physical landscape that affect how people will actually interact with the landscape
• Cultural construction
• Group identity
• Cultural change
Ideas about what is or is not food are closely tied to what processes?
structured beliefs and behaviors surrounding the production, distribution, and consumption of food. • Holistic perspective toward food and history
can also communicate division and unequal power relations. • e.g. "sumptuary laws" restricted certain foods to preferred social classes.
suggested that food is comparable to language as a form of symbolic communication.
Dinners have a precise order - like a sentence.
purity and danger
Food taboos communicate symbolism • e.g. Jewish dietary laws
an anthropological theory that people make sense of their worlds through binary oppositions like hot-cold, culture-nature, male-female, and raw- cooked. These binary oppositions are expressed in social institutions and cultural practices.
Nature and culture • Raw and cooked • Cooking transforms nature into culture.
Structural Anthropology (1969), Lévi-Strauss observed that all cultures distinguish between what?
a concept that refers to the sense that gives humans the ability to detect flavors, as well as the social distinction associated with certain foodstuffs.
Food preferences, etiquette, and taboos
mark social boundaries and identities.
may mark gender differences, ethnic or regional differences, and professional or class status.
• Perceived healthiness
• Eating habits
Foodways remain stable but change rapidly due to what?
modes of subsistence
social relationships and practices necessary for procuring, producing, and distributing food.
the cultivation of gardens or small fields to meet the basic needs of a household.
the practice of animal husbandry. • Animal husbandry is breeding of domesticated herding animals such as cattle, camels, goats, horses, llamas, reindeer, and yaks.
the green revolution
the transformation of agriculture in the Third World that began in the 1940s, through agricultural research, technology transfer, and infrastructure development.
access to sufficient nutritious food to sustain an active and healthy life.
the combination of changes in diet toward energydense foods (high in calories, fat, and sugar) and declines in physical activity.
the way a people in a specific culture mentally organize or represent culturally relevant knowledge. • Mental structures, ideas, or pictures • Engendered through experience, symbolic associations, stories, values • Examples: • Mental maps • Mental scripts • Mental schemas
the relative worth of an object or service that makes it desirable.
the subdiscipline concerned with how people make, share, and buy things and services.
the structured patterns and relationships through which people exchange goods and services—and understanding how culture and economy affect each other.
the study of how people make decisions to allocate resources like time, labor, and money in order to maximize their personal benefit.
an economic system based on private ownership of the means of production, in which prices are set and goods distributed through a market.
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