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Terms in this set (146)
DessusUnder. Indicates that the working foot passes in Front of the supporting legDetourneTurned aside. A detourne is a pivot turn on both pointes or demi pointes. It is a complete turn toward the back foot and reverses the position of the feetDeuxTwoDevantIn front. This term refers to a movement, step, or placing of a limb in front of the body. In refernce to a particular step, the addition pf the world devant implies that working foot is closed in the frontTemps developpeTime developed. developing movement. Through common usage, the term has been abridged (shortened) to developpe. A developpe is a movement in which the working leg is drawn up to the knee of the supporting leg and slowly extended to an open position en'lair and held there with perfect control.DivertissementDiversion, enjoyment. A suite of short numbers called entrees, inserted into a classical ballet. These short dances are calculated to display the talents of individuals or a group of dancers.EcarteSeparated, thrown wide apart. Ecarte is one of the eight directions of the body. In this position, the dancer faces either one of the two front corners of the room. The leg nearer the audience is pointed in second position a terre or raised to the second position en'lair.EchappeEscaping or slipping movement. An echappe is a level opening of both feet from a closed to an open position. There are 2 kinds of echappes: Echappe saute, which is done with a spring from the fifth position and finishes in a demi-plie in the open position and echappe sur les pointes, which is done with a releve and has knees straight when in the open position. In each case echappes are done to the second or fourth position, both feet traveling an equal distance from the original center of gravity.Echappe SauteEchappe, jumping or springing.Echappe sur les pointesEchappe on the points or toesEffaceShaded. One of the directions of apaulement, in which the dancer stands at an oblique angle to the audience so that a part of the body is taken back and almost hidden from view.ElevationElevation is the ability of a dancer to attain height in dancing.EntrechatInterweaving or braiding. A step of beating in which the dancer jumps into the air and rapidly crosses the legs before and behind each other.EpaulmentShouldering. The placing of the shoulders. A term used to indicate a movement of the torso from the waist upward, bringing one shoulder forward and the other shoulder back with the head turned or inclined over the forward shoulder.En faceOpposite (the audience); facing the audience.FailliGiving away. A fleeting movement done on one count.FermeClosed. Indicates that both feet are in a closed position or that the feet at the end of a step are brought to a closed position.Flic FLaca crack, as of a whip. A flicking or lashing movement done in exercises at the bar and in the centre of the room.FonduSinking down. A term used to describe a lowering of the body made by bending the knee of the supporting leg.Fouettewhipped. A term applied to a whipping movement.FrappeStruckGlissadeGlide. A traveling step executed by gliding the working foot from the fifth position in the required direction, the other foot closing to it.Jambeleggrand jetelarge jete. In this step the legs are thrown to 90 degrees with a corresponding high jump. Grand jete is always preceded by a preliminary movement such as a glissade, pas couru or coupe.Temps LeveTime raised or raising movementTemps LieTime linked or linking movementLiftThe lifting of the danseuse by her male partnerLyrical dancingA poetic style of dancing with a lovely, flowy quality.ManegesCircular. A term applied to steps or enchainements executed in a circle.MethodsAcademic ballet as we know it today came into being in the year 1661, when King Louis XIV of France founded the Academie Royale de Musique et en Danse. Although individual Milanese dancing-masters had been renowned since the 15th century, the permanent Imperial Dancing Academy connected with La Scala Theatre was not opened until 1812. The Academy of Milan influenced Paris and especially Russia through the rules of education drawn up by Carlo Blasis, who became the director of the Academy in 1837 and rapidly made it the centre of ballet academy. By the middle of the 19th century, the ballet centers of the world had shifted from Paris to Milan to St. Petersburg and Moscow. The Russian school first derived its techinque from France but by the middle of the 19th century it had been acquired an international aspect through the influence of international artists. From the beginning of the second half of the 19th century Russian Ballet was dominated by Marius Petipa, a Frenchman, and Christian Johannsen, a Swede. Then in 1874 Enrico Cecchetti, the last great exponent of the Italian School, arrived in Russia. These three men working on generations of Russian dancers developed Russian ballet, making is as much a system as Italian or French ballet. Actually the French method is in the greatest proportion in the Russian school.OppositionThe term refers to the "law" by which the arm position is in opposition to the leg that is in front, whether that leg is the supporting or the working leg.OuvertOpen, opened. This may refer to positions, limbs, directions, or certain exercises or steps.PasA step. Pas also refers to a dance executed by a soloist (pas seul), duet (pas de deux), etc.Pas d'actionDance action. A scene in a ballet that expresses emotion or tells a story by means of mime and dance.Pas de BasqueBasque step. A characteristic step of the national dances of the Basques that has been adapted to ballet use.GrandBig, Large. For example in Grand BattementPas de BourreBourre StepPas de ChatCat's stepPas de ChevalHorse's step. This step is so called because it resembles the movement of a horse pawing the ground.Pas de deux (pah duh duh)dance for twoGrand Pas de DeuxGrand dance for two. It differs from the simple pas de deux in that it has a definite structure. As a general rule the grand pas de deux falls into 5 parts: entree, adage, variation for the danseuse, variation for the dancer, and the code in which both dancers dance together.Pas de troisdance for threePassePassed. A movement in which the foot of the working leg passes the knee from one position to the other.PencheLeaning of incliningPetit, or PetiteLittle or smallPiquePricked or PrickingPiroutteWhirl or spinPlacementa dancer is said to be well-placed when he or she has learned to hold the body, heads, arms and legs in their proper alignment to each other, has acquired the turn-out of the legs, a well poised head level hips, and a straight spine in all steps and poses.PlieBent or Bending. A bending of the knee or kneesPort de BrasCarriage of the arms. The term port de bras has two meanings: (1) A movement or series of movements made by passing the arm or arms through various positions. The passage of the arms from one position to another constitutes a port de bras. (2) A term for a group of exercises designed to make the arms move gracefully and harmoniously.Poserto place. To place the foot on the ground.tour de promenadeturn in a walk. A term used to indicate that the dancer turns slowly in place on one foot by a series of slight movements of the heel to the required side while maintaining a definite pose such as an arabesque or attitude.En quarreIn the shape of a square. Steps or executed in a square formation, delineating three or four sides of a square.QuatrefourQuatriemeFourthReleveRaised. A raising of the body on the points or demi-pointes, point or demi-pointeReleve LentSlow raisingRenverseUpset, reversed. The bending of the body during a turn in which the normal balance is upset but not the equilibrium. It applies only to 3 steps: a piroutte; a pas de bourre en tournant; and a detourne. The body bends from the waist, sideways and backwards, the head following the movement of the body.Grande reveranceBig reverance or curtsey. The elaborate curtesy performed by the female dancer to acknowledge the applause of the audience. It is also done at the end of a ballet class to show the respectful admiration of pupils for their teacher.RiseThis is the smooth releve from a position a terre through all the levels of the foot (quarter-point, half-point, and three quarter point). The toes do not move from the spot at which the rise begins.RetireWithdrawn. A position in which the thigh is raised to the second position en l'air with the knee bent so the pointed foot rests in front of, behind or to the side of the supporting knee.RollingDancers who do not have a good turn out should not force their legs to turn out too much at first, as this usually results in rolling ankles. If the weight is on the inside of the feet, dancers call this rolling in; if the weight is on the outside of the feet, it is called rolling out. The toes and heels should be flat on the floor and the turn out must come from the hip joints.Romantic BalletA style of ballet produced in the early nineteenth century in which the accent was on the conveyance of a mood to tell a story. Examples of romantic ballets are La Sylphide and GiselleRondRound or CircularRond de JambeRound of the leg, that is, a circular movement of the leg. Ronds de jambe are used as an exercise at the bar, in the centre and in the adage, and are done à terre or en l'air. When used as a step, ronds de jambe are done en l'air and may be sauté or relevé. All are done clockwise (en dehors) and counterclockwise (en dedans).Rond de jambe à terreRond de jambe on the ground. An exercise at the bar or in the centre in which one leg is made to describe a series of circular movements on the ground. Both legs must be kept perfectly straight and all movement must come from the hip, along with the arching and relaxing of the instep. The toe of the working foot does not rise off the ground and does not pass beyond the fourth position front (fourth position ouvert) or the fourth position back. This is an exercise to turn the legs out from the hips, to loosen the hips and to keep the toe well back and heel forward. There are two kinds of ronds de jambe à terre: those done en dedans (inward) and those done en dehors (outward).Rond de jambe en l'airrond de jambe in the air. Rond de jambe en l'aire are done at the bar and in centre practice, and may be done single, or double, en dehors (outward) or en dedans (inward). The toe of the working foot describes an oval, the extreme ends of which are the second position in l'air and the supporting leg. The thigh must be kept motionless and the hips well turned out, the whole movement being made by the leg below the knee. The thigh should also be held horizontal so that the pointed toe of the working foot passes at the height of the supporting knee. Ronds de jambe en l'air may also be done with the leg extended to the second position en l'air and closed to the calf of the supporting leg. The accent of the movement comes when the foot is in the second position en l'air. The movement is done en dehors (outward) and dedans (inward).RoyaleRoyal. A changement in which the calves are beaten together before the feet change position.SauteJumped or jumping. When this term is added to the name of a step, the movement is performed while jumping. Note in all jumping movements the tips of the toes should be first to reach the ground after the jump, then the sole of the foot followed by the heel. In the rising from the ground the foot moves in the reverse order.Scene d'actionan action scene. A mimed scene introduced in the ballet d'action in the nineteenth century.A la secondeTo the second. A term to imply that the foot is to be placed in the second position, or that a movement is to be made to the second position en l'air.SicklingThis term is used for a fault in which the dancer turns his or her foot in from the ankle, thereby breaking the straight line of his or her leg.SissonneSissonne is named for the originator of the step. It is a jump from both onto one foot with the exception of sissonne fermee, sissonee tombee and sissonne fondue, which finish on two feet.SoubresautSudden spring or bound. A springing jump from both feet usually performed traveling forward and landing on both feet in either a croise or efface direction and landing on both feet.SoutenuSustained, to holdSpottingThis is a term given to the movement of the head and focusing of the eyes in piroutte, deboules, foutte ronds de jambe en tournant and so on. In these turns the dancer chooses a spot in front and as the turn is made away from the spot, the head is the last to leave and the first to arrive as the body completes the turn. This rapid movement or snap of the head gives the impression that the face is always turned forward and prevents the dancer from becoming dizzy.Supporting LegA term used by dancers and teachers for the leg which supports the body so that the working leg is free to execute a given movement.Sus-sous or Sous-susOver - under. A releve in the fifth position performed sur place or traveled forward, backward or to the side. The dancer springs onto the points or demi-pointes. Drawing the feet and legs tightly together.Tempstime, step, movement. A part of a step or movement in which no transfer of weight takes place.Tenduto stretch or stretched.A terreon a ground. This term indicates (1) that the entire base of the supporting foot or feet touches the ground; (2) that the foot usually raised in a pose is to remain on the ground with the toes extended.Tombefalling. This is a movement in which the dancer, with the working leg raised in the air, falls forward, backward or sideways into a fondu on the working leg.TourTo Turn, a turn of the body.Tour en l'airturn in the air. This is essentially a male dancer's step although contemporary choreographers use this tour for girls.Tour lentSlow turn, used in adagio, performed on the whole sole of the foot. It is done either en dehors (outward) or en dedans (inward) by a slight movement of the heel in the required direction. The entire body must remain immobile (not moving) while turning. In a pas de deux, the girl does a supported tour lent sur la pointe while the boy walks around her in a promenade.En Tournantturning, indicates that the body is to turn while executing a given stepTroisthreeTurn outThis is the ability of the dancer to turn his or her feet and legs out from the hip joints to a 90 degree position. This turn out, or en dehors (outward), is one of the essential principles of the classical dance, giving the dancer freedom of movement in every direction.Tututhis is the short classical ballet skirt made of many layers or tarlatan or net. The romantic tutu is the long skirt reaching below the calf.Variationa solo dance in classical balletWarm upThis the term used by the dancers for the exercises they perform in the wings before going on the stage for a performance. These are usually bar exercises plus stretching and limbering. Dancers always warm up ass a precaution against injury to the muscles and tendons and to make sure that the body is pliable and ready for the strain about to be placed upon it.Working LegA term used by dancers and teachers to denote the leg that is executing a given movement while the weight of the body is on the supporting leg.Adagioat ease or leisure. In dancing it has two meanings (1) a series of exercises consisting of a succession of slow and graceful movements performed with fluidity and apparent ease or (2) the opening section of a classical pas de deux, in which the ballerin, assisted by her male partner, performs slow movements.En l'airin the airallegrobrisk, lively. A term applied to all bright and brisk movementsAllongeExtended or outstretchedArabesqueone of the basic poses of ballet, it is a position of the body, in profile, supported on one leg, which can be done straight or in demi-plie, with the other leg extended behind it and at right angles to it, and the arms held in various harmonious positions creating the longest possible line from the fingertips to the toes.assembleassembled or join together. A step in which the working foot slides well along the ground before being swept into the air. As the foot goes into the air the dancer pushes off the floor with the supporting leg, extending the toes. Both legs come to the ground at the same time in the fifth positionEn avantforward. A direction used for the execution of a step. Used to indicate that a step is to be executed moving towards the audience.BalanceRocking step. Shifting the weight from one foot to the other. Balance may be done crossing the foot either front or back. Balance may also be done en avant (forward) or en arriere (back) facing croise or efface and en tourant.Prima BallerinaA title for an outstanding soloist or first principal female dancer of a ballet company.Balleta theatrical work or entertainment in which a choreographer has expressed his or her ideas in a group or solo dancing to a musical accompaniment with appropriate costumes, scenery and lighting.Ballet d'actiona ballet with a plot or story.Ballet master or Ballet Mistressa person in a ballet company whose job is to give the daily company class and to rehearse the ballets in the company repertoire.BallonTo bounce. Ballon is the light, elastic quality in jumping in which the dancer bounds up from the floor, pauses a moment in the air and descends lightly and softly, only to rebound in the air like the smooth bouncing of a ball.Ballonneball-like or bouncing step. A step in which the dancer springs into the air extending one leg to the front, side or back, and lands with the extended leg either sur le cou-de-pied (neck of the foot) or retire.BallotteTossedBarrethe horizontal wooden bar fastened to the walls of the ballet classroom or rehearsal hall which the dancer holds for support.BattementBeating. A beating action of the extended or bent leg. There are two types of battements. Grand (large) battements and petite (small) battements.Grand BattementLarge Battement. An exercise in which the working leg is raised from the hip into the air and brought down again, the accent being on the downward movement, both knees straight.Petite BattementSmall Battement. It is also a term for a small beating action of the foot or leg.BatterieThe French technical term for beaten steps. A collective term meaning the entire vocabulary of beats. Any movement in which the legs beat together or one leg beats against the other, the actual beating being done with the calves.BattuBeaten. Any step embellished with a beatBeatsThe dancers executes a beat during a jump by striking the calves sharply together. There are three classifications of beats: pas battus (beaten) ; entrechats, and brises (broken).BrasarmsBriseBroken, breaking. A small beating step in which the movement is broken. Essentially a brise is an assemble beaten and traveled.CabrioleCaper. An allegro step in which the extended legs are beaten in the air.CambreArched. The body is bent from the waist, backward or sideways, the head following the movement of the body.CavalierThe male partner of the ballerinaChainesChains, links. A series of rapid turns on the points or demi-pointes done in a straight line or in a circle.ChangeChanged. If the term change is added to the name of a step, the feet have changed places during the step and the foot originally in front will have finished in the back or vice versa.ChasseChased. A step in which one foot literally chases the other foot out of its position.ChoreographerThe term applied to one who composes or invents ballets or dances.ChoreographyA term used to describe the actual steps, groupings, and patterns of a ballet or dance composition.Classical Ballet(1) The traditional style of ballet, which stresses the academic technique developed through the centuries of the existence of ballet. (2) a ballet in which the style and structure adhere to the definite framework established in the 19th century.En clocheLike a bell. Refers to grands battements executed continuously devant and derrière through the first position.Coda(1) The finale of a classical ballet in which all the principal dancers appear separately or with their partners. (2) the final dance of the classical pas de deux, pas de trios or pas de quattre.ContretempsBeating against time. This is a compound step that is executed and prior to the beat of the music.CorpsBodycorps de ballet (kor duh bal lay)the ensemble or the group of dancers (non soloists) in a ballet companyCoupeCut, cutting. It takes its name from the fact that one foot cuts the other away and takes it place.De coteSideways - traveling to the sideCou-de-piedneck of the foot (ankle). The part of the foot between the ankle and the base of the calf.sur le cou-de-piedOn the cou-de-pied. Position of one foot placed on the ankle of the other foot so that the heel protrudes in front of the supporting leg. It takes its name from the fact that one foot cuts the other way and takes its place.CroiseCrossedEn Croixin the shape of a cross (front, side, back, side). Indicates that an exercise is to be executed to the fourth position term-145front, to the second position and to the fourth position back or vice versa.