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Arts and Humanities
Planning History & Law
Terms in this set (80)
The Sector Theory (Homer Hoyt)
is an urban land use model which talks about spatial arrangement of activities in an urban area. Explains how cities grew and activities arranged themselves in the form of concentric zone. Hoyt argued that cities do not develop in the form of simple rings, instead they have "sectors." Homer Hoyt in 1939 suggested that few activities grow in the form of sectors which radiates out along the main travel links. Activities in a sector are considered to be the same throughout the sector because of the purpose/function it serves. Land use within each sector would remain the same because like attracts like. The high-class sector would stay high-class because it would be the most sought after area to live, so only the rich could afford to live there. The industrial sector would remain industrial as the area would have a typical advantage of a railway line or river. These sectors can be housing, industrial activities, etc. These sectors grow along railway lines, highways or rivers.
Ordinance of 1785
Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Old Northwest. "the largest single act of national planning in our history"
Public Land Survey System
A system used to divide public domain lands in the United States in which land is divided into 6-mile square townships and subdivided into sections, portions of sections, or irregular lots. Also referred to as Rectangular Survey System.
mass housing: multiple/large families living in 1 room apartments; very bad conditions: sanitation problems, disease, fires spread easily, poverty, had to have windows; people like Riis pushed for reform of these, 1980s. First model tenement built 1855 in Manhattan.
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres of public land by living on it for five years, improving it and paying a nominal fee. Signed by Lincoln. The Government granted more than 270 million acres of land while the law was in effect.
The Tenement House Act of 1867
Passed by NYC. ordinance required new tenement buildings to provide a narrow air shaft between adjacent structures, windows that open into the shaft, two toilets on each floor, and a one square yard window in each room. This represented the first major housing code in the United States.
How the Other Half Lives
A book by John Riis that told the public about the lives of the immigrants and those who live in the tenements. Published in 1890. Stimulus to public housing and neighborhood reform.
World Columbian Exposition of 1893
A source of the City Beautiful Movement and the urban planning profession
- author of "Tomorrow:
A Peaceful Path To Social Reform". Founder of the Garden City Movement
Garden City Movement
Ebenezer Howard's movement, which advocated the construction of new towns separated from each other by open country with recreational areas, fresh air, and sense of community that would encourage healthy family life
1901 New York State Tenement House Act
(1901) Enacted due to poor conditions in tenements. Prohibited tenements on 25-ft. lots, and required fire-exits, light, running water, and ventilation in order to increase health and sanitation.
Letchworth Garden City
Ebenezer Howard, 1903, Hertfordshire England, World's first Garden City
Burnham Plan for Chicago
1909 Plan of Chicago, co-authored by Daniel Burnham and Edward H. Bennett. It recommended an integrated series of projects including new and widened streets, parks, new railroad and harbor facilities, and civic buildings. Though only portions of the plan were realized, the document reshaped Chicago's central area and was an important influence on the new field of city planning.
First Application of City Beautiful
Burnham's Plan for San Francisco
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