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Hosea and Micah Exam
Terms in this set (137)
Who was the main king in Israel during the time of Hosea?
Jeroboam II (786-746)
List the kings of Israel during the time of Hosea.
Jeroboam II (786-746)
List the kings of Judah during the time of Hosea.
Which Israelite king was captured by the Assryians and died in exile?
Which Israelite kings were murdered by usurpers?
Zechariah, Shallum, Pekahiah, Pekah
Who were the leaders of Assyria during Hosea's time?
Tiglath-pileser III (745-727)
Shalmanezer V (727-722)
Sargon II (721-705)
What was the result of the Battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.)?
Assyria was stopped by a coalition of kings of the Levant
Who subjugated Babylon and eliminated threat of Urartu during the first 2 yrs of his reign and then had his 1st campaign to the West in 743?
Tiglath-pileser III (745-727) (AKA Pul)
Who were the Uratu?
fierce fighters who lived in mountainous regions
Under Menahem, Israel _________ to Assyria, became a ______, and paid _____ ______.
submitted, vassal, heavy tribute
Pekahiah was assassinated by _____ in an anti-Assyrian coup.
Pekah's revolt against Assryia is....
the Syro-Ephraimite War (ca. 734-733 B.C.)
When Pekah tried to force Ahaz of Judah to join the Syro-Ephraimite coalition, Ahaz __________ to Tiglath-pileser II and sent large a large gift to purchase ___ _____ (2 Kings 16:7)
appealed, his help
Tiglath-pileser III invaded _____, destroyed ________, and killed ______
Syria, Damascus, Rezin
Tiglath-pileser invaded _____ (ca. 733), ________Transjordan and Galilee, _______the population (2 Kings 15:29), and poised to ______Samaria
Israel, conquered, deported, capture
Disaster is averted (temporarily) because _______ assassinated Pekah (2 Kings 15:30) and surrendered to Assyria and paid tribute (2 K. 17:3)
Hoshea remained a loyal vassal until death of Tiglath-pileser III in 727 but he rebelled against___________ ___ (2 Kings 17:4)
In 724 ____________ attacked, besieging Samaria, ________ captured, Samaria held out for two years, but fell in 722 B.C. with thousands killed and deported
When was Hosea's prophetic ministry?
ca. 750-724 (~25 yrs, probably began late in Jeroboam's reign and ended just before fall of Samaria)
What was the social/political situation in Israel when Hosea prophesied?
Assassinations, Chaos, Anarchy, Idolatry, Desperate political intrigues, Social and Religious disintegration
Write an outline of Hosea.
Hosea's marriage to Gomer (chs. 1-3)
Various Oracles (chs. 4-14)
(Possibly arranged chronologically)
From Jeroboam's Reign (4:1-5:7)
From the Syro-Ephraimite War (5:8-6:6)
From Hoshea's Reign (chs. 10-14)
What does Hoshea mean?
Hosea has no ________ element but does have a _______.
Where was Hosea from?
Northern Kingdom (probably)
What are some characteristics of Hosea?
Probably a young man at his call, Prophesied for ca. 25 years, Intelligent, gifted poet
The text of Hosea is one of the ______ preserved in the Old Testament.
worst (because of the chaos surrounding the fall of Samaria and the Northern Israelite dialect)
What is Hosea's focus?
Yahweh's relationship with Israel (covenant, no prophecies against nations)
Hosea uses the metaphor of ________ for the covenant between Yahweh and Israel
___________ is the basis of judgment and mercy.
Idolatry is not simply a proscribed act. It is a symbol of Israel's _________ of the ________
Hosea uses a metaphor of ________ for Israel's idolatrous lifestyle
_______ is the constant counterpoint to Yahwism in Hosea's prophecy
Yahweh is Israel's ________, but Baal has become Israel's ______
"No prophet is better informed than Hosea about Israel's ________, or uses __________ tradition more for the stuff of his kerygma." (J.L. Mays)
What are the two periods in Israel's history mentioned by Hosea?
time of Exodus (pure relationship) and life in Canaan (apostasy)
What were Israel's two major crimes?
religious life (idolatry), political life (rely on own military strength)
What was God's judgment for Israel's 2 major crimes?
loss of fertility (corresponds to idolatry), military defeat and political collapse (corresponds to political arrogance/relying on own military strength)
Hosea includes oracles of ____ throughout the book
hope (Hosea offers hope to a self-destructive nation)
What is the key idea of Hosea?
God is merciful, but mercy follows judgment (A popular idea was that mercy substitutes for judgment)
What is the structure of prophetic symbolism?
Divine Command to Perform an Act
Interpretation of Act
Obedience to Command
What are 3 interpretations of Gomer's harlotry/whoredom?
Gomer was a Common Prostitute, Gomer was a Cult Prostitute (but word qedeshah not used here), Gomer was a woman with a proclivity toward sexual immorality (proleptic interpretation)
What is meaning of Gomer's name?
Who are the children of Gomer?
First Child, a son- Jezreel, "God sows"
Second Child, a Daughter- Lo-ruhamah, "Not Pitied"
Third child, a Son-Lo-ammi, "Not My People"
What does is the object of God's sowing in the name Jezreel?
judgment (destruction on Israel for her sins)
"Children of the living God" is a ______ phrase in O.T. (see Rom. 9:26)
Why use prophetic symbolism?
To get message across and strengthen message (sometimes when we do things, it is more effective and powerful than when we just say things)
The Day of Jezreel passage is the 1st Oracle of _____ in Hosea
On the future Day of Jezreel, what four things will happen?
Israel's population will explode (10a)
Relationship with Yahweh re-established (10b)
North & South will be reunited (11a)
Their names will be reversed (11b-2:1)
Which word is used for the leader when the North and South are reunited?
"head" (ro'sh rather than "king" melek)
Hosea offers hope for resumption of _________with Yahweh
The Hebrew word rib translated "plead" is a ____ term, meaning, "to call someone to _______, initiate a _______"
legal, account, lawsuit (to sue someone)
What is allegory?
"The expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths about human conduct or experience"
What is the charge against Gomer/Israel in the divorce court?
"She is not my wife, and I am not her husband"
because of "her whoring . . . and her adultery"
What is the evidence to convict Gomer/Israel in the divorce court?
Gomer's self-testimony (Her "lovers" are Canaanite fertility gods, she thinks they give them her pay when it really comes from God)
How many judgments are there in the divorce court? What word do they each begin with?
3, therefore (Heb. laken)
What is the first judgment in the divorce court?
penalty for adultery- judgment of restriction (rather than death so she will return to her first husband)
God's judgment is _________, not punitive
What is the second judgment in the divorce court?
Judgment of removal ("I will take back my grain . . . my wine . . . my wool and my flax", Her lovers cannot rescue her, Yahweh alone is Lord of nature
Judgment on the cult (vss 11, 13), Israel "forgot me"- broke covenant (vs 13))
What word is the antithesis of the word "to know"
What is the 3rd judgment in the divorce court?
judgment of restoration/hope (Yahweh takes initiative to reconcile Israel- "I will now allure her" (Heb. patah htp, see Ex. 22:16) "and bring her into the wilderness, and speak tenderly to her", The Valley of Achor becomes a Door of Hope- A reversal of history)
What does Achor mean?
sin in a way that brings shame on whole community (but God is going to allow them to start over by taking them back to the wilderness- reversal of history- Josh 7:26)
________ follows Judgment
What is syncretism?
"Attempted union of diverse or opposite beliefs" (Oxford Universal Dictionary)
What is 'ish?
"husband, partner, companion"
what is ba'al?
"husband, master, owner, lord"
What is a berit?
"a solemn agreement between God and Israel" (covenant)
What will God do in new covenant in Hosea?
Yahweh will create an atmosphere of peace between Israel and all living creatures and will eliminate the threat of war
What is betrothal?
A binding legal agreement between families that involves financial payments (Bride Price and Dowry)
What is Yahweh's bride price?
Righteousness and Justice, Steadfast love and Mercy, Faithfulness
What is hesed?
covenant loyalty (faithfulness, mostly used of God)
What is rahamim
deep compassion and love for people like that of a mother for her child
What is 'emunah?
reliability, consistency (faithfulness)
In the Day of Restoration, God will give Israel a new _______,______, ______, and ______.
relationship, covenant, betrothal, fertility
Yahweh _______the cycle of fertility
initiates (unlike Canaanite religion, where worshipers seek to initiate fertility through Sympathetic Magic)
What are 3 possibilities for the relationship between Hosea 1 and 3?
Hosea 3 describes a different woman (Not Gomer)
Hosea 3 is parallel account of Hosea 1 (Two accounts of the same event)
Hosea 3 is a remarriage (Hosea 3 occurred some time later)
Why must Hosea purchase the woman (Gomer?)?
She has become the legal property of someone else
The purchase price of the woman (likely Gomer) is the around that of a ______ ______
When Hosea addresses Gomer(?) in 3:3, what does he tell her?
"You must remain as mine for many days; you shall not play the *****, you shall not have intercourse with a man, nor I with you."
What 6 institutions will Israel be deprived of as stated in Hosea 3:4-5?
King and Prince (Political Leadership)
Sacrifice & Pillar (Religious Ritual)
Ephod & Teraphim (Divination)
The purpose of all of Yahweh's actions is to get Israel to ______to him
To "return" (Heb. shub) means "to _____ _______"
What is the structure of Hosea 11?
Israel's Past: Yahweh's Election (1-4)
Israel's Present (5-7)
Yahweh's Agony over Israel (8-9)
Israel's Future (10-11)
What is the new metaphor is ch. 11 of Hosea?
Yahweh has elected Israel based on divine _____
love ('ahab, means "choice, selection")
Yahweh called/elected his ____, yet Israel _______.
In Hosea 11, Israel looks to ______ for help and to _____ they call, but he cannot raise them up
Admah and Zeboiim are Symbols of _______ ________
Divine Destruction (destroyed alongside Sodom and Gomorrah)
The "heart" (Heb. leb) refers to the center of _______ and _____
In Yahweh's heart (leb), he decides not to execute His fierce _____. As the Holy, Sovereign God, He is not _________by anyone or any principle
In the future (as predicted in Hos 11), Yahweh will ____ like a ____ and Israel will ____ to Him ______.
roar, lion, return, trembling
Yahweh will re-establish Israel in their ______.
What are the 2 main parts of Hosea 14?
Call for Repentance (1-3), Divine Promise of Salvation (4-8)
To return to God, Israel is to give a ______ and ______ and ______ idols.
petition, confession, renounce
God choose to heal Israel's disloyalty based on His _______ love
uncompelled (love them freely, nedavah)
A scribe would often append a brief _____to the end of a manuscript
note (Sometimes he gave his name or name of the patron who commissioned the copy, Sometimes he added a warning not to change any of the words of the text, Sometimes he urged the reader to pay careful attention to the text)
Create an outline of Micah.
Based on Formula: "Hear!"
Movement from Doom to Hope in each Section
What is the mainline scholarly consensus concerning the integrity of Micah? Why?
Only chs. 1-3 are from Micah
Chs. 4-7 are from later prophet(s)- prediction of exile to Babylon and building wall which happened much later
What does Micah's name mean?
"Who is like Yahweh?" (an exclamation of praise)
Where is Micah from? Where is this located?
20 miles south-west of Jerusalem- On the border with Philistia (A rural area- Micah shows concern for the rural poor)
In Micah's superscription, only the kings of ______ are mentioned. Who are they?
Judah, Jotham (742-735), Ahaz (735-715), Hezekiah (715-687)
Micah's ministry overlaps ______
Judah becomes _____of Assyria (refused to join Syro-Ephraimite coalition)
Israel falls in _____ BC
Micah is among the most ______-______ of the prophets. Yet Micah is not focused on _______ but on _______ authority
self-assured, self, God's (The spirit of Yahweh, Divine Justice and Might)
Which two groups does Micah condemn?
Political Leaders who do not uphold justice
Religious Leaders who act according to what benefits themselves
Which 2 types of people does Micah see?
oppressed and oppressors
Micah identifies with the ______
Which 3 crimes are part of God's indictment in Micah?
Perverting Justice (3:9-11)
Hypocritical Religion (3:5)
What is the judgment of Judah is Micah?
The Punishment fits the Crime- "They devise evil .... I will devise evil" (2:1 & 3)- Night comes on the Seers (3:5-7), The Destruction of Jerusalem (3:12)
What is an outline for Micah 1-3?
Capital Punishment for Capital Cities (1:2-16)
The Plan of Men versus the Plan of God (2:1-5)
Cannibals in the Court (3:1-4)
Blindness Strikes the False Prophets (3:5-8)
Coming Destruction of Jerusalem (3:9-12)
The mountain of Yahweh (Micah 4:1-5) is among the _____-______ OT prophecies
The mountain of Yahweh (Micah 4:1-5) promises a future of ______ and _______ (also found in _____2:2-4)
peace, security (shalom), Isaiah
The mountain of Yahweh (Micah 4:1-5) answers question raised by 3:12, What will become of _______?
______ issues from judgment
What is the structure of the mountain of Yahweh (Micah 4:1-5)?
Yahweh's Mount will be Pre-eminent (1a)
Nations will stream to Jerusalem (1b-2)
Yahweh will adjudicate btw. nations (3a)
Weapons will be unneeded (3b)
All will live in peace and security (4)
Liturgical Response (5)
A Ruler from Bethlehem (5:1-5a) passage in Micah is one of the 3 "___" oracles
now (each moves from distress to hope)
What does Bethlehem of Ephrathah (5:2) refer to?
either a section of Bethlehem or a clan of people who lived in Bethlehem- especially descendent of David
In the future, Jerusalem will be the most ____ place on earth, attracting people from ___ _____
holy, all nations
Torah (instruction) can refer to "_____,_____" or the "_____-______ of Yahweh"
laws, instruction, self-revelation
Yahweh is the ultimate _____ of creation and in the end, _____ will not longer be needed because He will decide all _____.
judge, weapons (war), disputes
In the days to come, instruments of _____ will be transformed into instruments of ___
In the end, there will be a return to ____
In Micah 5:1, Judah was under siege- does this refer to the _____-_____ war? ______ siege of Jerusalem?
Striking some on the ____ was the worst insult
The word ____ is not used in Micah 5:1-5a, rather "____ who is to ____"
king, one, rule (moshel, maybe to avoid neg. connotations of king)
The ruler from Bethlehem will be a _______-_____.
The ______metaphor was common in OT and ANE
The coming ruler from Jerusalem would rule in the strength of ______
Yahweh (expression of Kingship of Yahweh)
What is the structure of Micah 6:6-8?
Proposed Answers (6:6b-7)
God's Answer (6:8)
Heb rib refers to a ______, ______
lawsuit, controversy (covenantal lawsuit, God taking His nation to court because of their sins)
Israel probably had a _______ approach to sacrifice, using them to _____ God
What is a whole burnt offering ('olah)
completely goes up to God- entire animal consumed in sacrifice
What is the significance of year old calves?
only had to be days old to sacrifice (greater sacrifice)
thousands of rams would have been connected with _______'s offering
Offering one's firstborn would be reminiscent of _______
God ignores each of proposals of sacrifice. His answer shifts away from a thing to be given to the ______ of ____ to be _____ by His people
quality, life, lived
What are God's requirements?
do justice (misphat- uphold God's mishpat), love kindness (hesed, choice, fidelity to covenant), walk humbly with your God (paying close attention to God's will rather than own will, maybe how accomplish 1st 2)
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