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PSYCH 1: Memory
Terms in this set (72)
The retention of information
- includes facts that never, seldom, or often change
What did German Psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus do to avoid problems surrounding memory?
He taught himself new material so that he knew exactly what he learned something and when
-he used lists of nonsense syllables
-he was able to measure how much longer it takes to memorize longer lists of information
An experience in which you might know the first litter, the number of syllables, and not much else
-memory is not an all-or-none thing
Describing what you remember, as you do on essays/tests
-almost always understates the actual amount you know
A test of memory in which accuracy improves in that you receive significant hints about the material
Method of testing memory by asking someone to choose the correct item among options (multiple choice)
Detects weak memories by comparing the speed of original learning to the speed of relearning
-you save time when you relearn something
(or direct memory)
Someone who states an answer regards as it as product of memory
(or indirect memory)
An experience that influences what you say or do even though you may be unaware of the influence
Exposing someone to an experience that facilitates thinking of or recognizing something else
-reading or hearing a word temporarily
Memories of how to do something (walking or eating with chopsticks)
Memories we can readily state in words (location of men's and women's restroom)
What do the two types of memory depend on?
Different Brain areas and damage in one can impair one type of memory without impairing the other
What is the difference in the learning speed of Procedural Memories and Declarative Memories?
Procedural memory or habit learning develops gradually while you often form a declarative memory all at once
What is an example of Recognition Memory that is often unreliable?
Trying to identify who committed a crime in a lineup
Delay of Questioning
After a traumatic experience such as an injury, a child's memory is best at first and becomes less accurate over a long delay
-In younger children, accuracy often increases due to the child being more articulate
Repeating the Question
If you ask a child a question and shortly thereafter ask the same question again they will likely change their answer
Type of Question
To an open ended question, the child's response is usually short, but accurate, but to a suggestive question, accuracy is less dependable
Hearing Other Children
A child hearing other children report something are likely to say the same thing even if it is wrong
Using Physical Representations
Using dolls to investigate suspicions of sexual abuse or asking a child to draw and event
Understanding a Question
A 3-year old child who doesn't understand a question usually answers yes
Information that enters the system is processed, coded, and stores; compares human memory to a computer
Temporary storage of recent events; (current score in a game)
A relatively permanent store of information; (rules of a game)
What are the two types of Long-Term Memory?
- memory of principles and facts (school)
- memory of specific events in your life (more fragile)
Forgetting when, where, or how you learned something
What is the difference between Long and Short Term memories in terms of storage?
Long-Term Memory has a vast hard to measure capacity, while Short-Term Memory is limited
Grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters
What have theorists suggested about immediate attention?
That the human immediate attention holds one item and any memory for no more than one item at a time and depends partly on long-term memory
What type of protein have neuroscientists identified in relation to memory?
A brain protein that weakens a memory trace presumably to avoid permanently storing irrelevant information
Converting a Short-Term Memory into a Long Term Memory
-Does occur, but not with all Short-Term Memories
A system for working with current information
Cognitive Processes that governs shifts of attentions
What is an influence on how well you remember something?
Whether or not you try to remember it
-if you don't expect to need certain you put less effort in remembering it
How does emotion relate to memory?
Extreme panic interferes with memory, but moderate emotion provides benefits largely by increasing the release of hormones cortisol and epinephrine (adrenaline) from the adrenal gland
The tendency to remember the first items in a list
The tendency to remember the last items in a list
What objects grab our attention the most?
People and Animals
How easily you retrieve a memory depends on the number and types of associations you form
What happens when you encode a memory?
You form associations; if you form many associations, many possible reminders called
can prompt your memory later
Encoding specificity principle
The associations you form at the time of learning will be the most effective retrieval cues later
If you want to remember something at a particular time and place what should you do?
Study under the same conditions you will try to remember the information in
What type of studying is worse for every kind of learning?
Studying all at once
What is the best strategy if you want to remember skills for a long time?
To mix up one type of skill with another type until you solve each of them, then wait a week and try again mixing one type with another
Why is taking notes in class beneficial?
Taking Notes in class focuses attention at the time and provides review material for later
-try to record ideas in an organized fashion
-better to summarize than take over detailed notes
What is essential to strengthen a memory?
To practice recalling it
-a test forces you to generate the material instead of passively reading it
Any memory aid based on encoding items in a special way (Every good boy deserves fudge)
Method of Loci
First you memory a series of places, and then you start to use a vivid image to associate each location with something you want to remember
Consolidation (Mnemonic Devices)
As time passes after initial learning, some memories change in ways that make them available much later; drinking coffee or napping after learning
The gain of memory over time; (being questioned multiple times increases recognition)
During an experience you construct a memory, when you try to retrieve that memory, you reconstruct an account based partly on distinct memories and partly on you expectations of what must have happened
What happens if you retell something repeatedly?
The retelling gradually become more coherent
The tendency to mold our recollection of the past to fit how events later turned out
What can happen when we try to remember something?
It might conflict with something else you already have learned
The old materials increase forgetting of new materials
-ex: struggling to remember new names
The new materials increase the forgetting of old materials;
-new French vocab words
What is a major cause of forgetting?
Reports of long lost memories, prompted by clinical techniques
-Accuracy is doubtful, evidence often not found
-Remembering abuse was more accurate than people reporting abuse after therapy
The processing of moving an unacceptable memory or impulse from the conscious mind to the unconscious mind
Referring to the memory one has stored but cannot retrieve; preferred by clinicians over recovered memories
What does whether someone remembers a traumatic experience depend on?
Their age at the time of the vent, its severity, and the reaction of other family members
What have psychologists become more confident in regards to therapy and memories?
The idea that therapy can implant false memories
What is the significance of brain damage and memory?
Various kinds of brain damage can impair one kind of memory but not another
A loss of memory
-In many causes they remember most of their factual knowledge, but forget their personal experiences
-can result from damage to the
Who was Henry Molaison?
He had his hippocampus removed to help ease epilespy; suffered massive
- the inability to store new Long-Term Memories and
-loss of memory for events that happened shortly before brain damage
What were the results of the study of Henry Molaison?
-Storing declarative memory requires the hippocampus; storing procedural memories depends on the basal ganglia
-The hippocampus is especially important for episodic memories
-The hippocampus is more important for explicit memory than implicit memory & is more important for difficult tasks than easy ones
-The hippocampus is essentially important for spatial memories where something is or how to get from one place to another
-Patients with hippocampus damage have trouble imagining the future just as they have trouble recalling the past
What is the Hippocampus is critical for remembering?
The details/context of memory; it connects to many areas of the cerebral cortex and synchronizes their activity, enabling them to combine their information in recalling an event
A condition caused by the prolonged deficiency of vitamin B (thiamine), usually as a result of chronic alcoholism
-leads to the widespread loss or shrinkage of neurons (especially in the prefrontal cortex)
-Paitents suffers apathy, confusion, and amnesia
An attempt to fill in gaps of memory
What do people with Prefrontal cortex damage struggle with?
Making reasonable inferences
A condition mostly occurring in old age, characterized by increasing severe memory loss, confusion, depression, disordered thinking, and impaired attention
-marked by accumulation of harmful proteins in the brain and deterioration of brain cells impairing arousal and attention
-include both anterograde and retrograde amnesia
-can still learn new skills
Early Childhood Amnesia or Infantile Amnesia
The scarcity of early childhood memories
-A proposal is that Long-Term memories require a sense of self that develops between ages 3 & 4
-As children grow older they are less likely to recall events from their earliest years
Rapid formation of new hippocampal neurons early in life not only promotes rapid learning, but also promotes rapid forgetting
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PSYCH 1: Cognition and Language
Psych 1: Intelligence
PSYCH 1: Development
PSYCH 1: Social Psychology
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