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PSYC 2010 Exam 3 Module 8: Personality
Terms in this set (25)
is a person's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
the first comprehensive theory of personality, explaining a wide variety of both normal and abnormal behaviors. According to Freud, unconscious drives influenced by sex and aggression, along with childhood sexuality, are the forces that influence our personality.
the part of the mind that is entirely unconscious. It operates on the Pleasure Principle that drives a person to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
a largely conscious system that serves to regulate conflicts between the id and superego. It operates on the reality principle - attempting to achieve a compromise between one's desires and what society expects.
operates on the morality principle. It develops during childhood in response to parental and societal influences, internalizing society's rules of conduct.
- this drives the id
- that people are motivated to seek pleasure and avoid pain (at least for themselves).
- Freud believed that feelings of anxiety result from the ego's inability to mediate the conflict between the id and superego.
- When this happens, Freud believed that the ego seeks to restore balance through various protective measures known
- active forgetting
- Rather than try to deal with or accept that thought, you just shut it away in the deep recesses of the unconscious, outside of awareness.
- you fight against a temptation or impulse by taking the opposing position to it
- you not only refuse to allow yourself to indulge the impulse, you become a staunch opponent to it and respond aggressively towards others who do engage in the behavior.
- justifying behaviors by substituting acceptable reasons for less-acceptable reasons
- ex: Kim failed his history course because he did not study or attend class, but he told his roommates that he failed because the professor did not like him.
unconditional positive regard
that an individual should be accepted and supported, regardless of what they say, do, or intend/want to do
the highest of Maslow's pyramid, to realize and understand their full potential.
- one that involves lots of rules and requires a great deal of control over behavior
- personality may not accurately predict a person's behavior
- one that has few rules
- individual personalities are able to come out. It is in these types of situations that personality can best predict behavior.
- is the likelihood of a given trait in both members of a twin pair
- The higher the concordance the greater the similarity.
behavioral inhibition system
- motivated to avoid punishment, is sensitive to negative information (e.g., failure feedback), and produces negative affect. This motivational system "puts the brakes" on behavior.
- When individuals are exposed to information that should initiate the BIS, the right PFC becomes more activated. (Pre-frontal cortex)
- Neuroticism, on the other hand, seems linked to the BIS system - as those high in neuroticism see much more intense right PFC (BIS) activity to negative feedback.
behavioral approach system
- is motivated to attain rewards, is sensitive to positive information (e.g., success feedback), and responds by producing positive affect. This system encourages activation and can be considered a "go" system.
- When individuals are exposed to information that should initiate the BAS, the left PFC becomes highly activated.
- People who score high in extraversion tend to have a very reactive BAS system (left PFC) than those who are more introverted.
What evidence suggests that personality development is influenced by genetics?
- twin studies
- This is done by collecting large samples of two different types of twin pairs and assessing each group of twin pairs on a variety of different characteristics. The similarity of each type of twin pair is represented as the concordance rate. The higher the concordance the greater the similarity.
-The concordance rate for identical twins is then compared to the concordance rate for fraternal twins to produce an index of heritability. If the concordance rate for identical twins is higher than the concordance rate for fraternal twins, genes likely play a stronger role, and heritability will be high.
- But if the concordance rate between the two types of twin pairs is very similar, environment plays a larger role, heritability will be low and environmentality will be high.
- scientists believe genetic factors account for 40-60% of the variance in the personality traits in the Big Five — even for identical twins who are raised by separate parents. This suggests a strong influence of genes on personality.
· What roles do the id, ego, and superego have in personality (thought, behavior, and emotion), according to Freud?
> thought: the id is unconscious, so we do not usually think. Usually it causes you to accidentally say something out of your desire and reveals what you're really thinking.
> behavior: it is impulsive and driven by pleasure. it motivates us through the libido. It is focused primarily on satisfying basic biological needs that promote its own survival and reproduction.
> emotion: selfish emotions, very self-interested. It encourages to act on your own self-interest.
> thought: it is in our conscious awareness, so it engages in relational thought and problem solving.
> behavior: self-control, delayed gratification.
> emotion: allows you to satisfy your selfish desires of the id without violating the superego's expectation of society.
> thought: is both conscious and unconscious. operates on your understanding of the laws of society (what is right, what is wrong).
> behavior: causes us to be more uptight and tries to live up to expectation of others.
> emotion: you worry about what is best for others, rather than what is best for you.
What did Freud think was the purpose of defense mechanisms? How do psychologists think about defense mechanisms now?
- Freud felt that conflicts between the id and the superego would require management by the superego in the form of defense mechanisms. And these defense mechanisms would manifest themselves as habitual patterns of behavior.
- many psychologists endorse a model of thought that includes both conscious and unconscious components.
- Freud brought attention to psychology and highlighted the non-biological causes of mental health disorders. That someone's depression might stem not from a physical problem, but rather from a pattern of thought.
How does humanism differ from psychodynamic theory?
- psychoanalysis bases itself theory on a pessimistic view of human nature and conveys that at the core, humans are fundamentally flawed. It basically says that we are like animals, and we need to be controlled through the imposition of rules and standards imposed by others.
- humanism's central basis is that humans are fundamentally good. That at their core, humans want to do what is best not only for themselves but for others. In this mindset, the society can aid in self-growth and understanding by providing unconditional positive regard.
How does an idiographic approach to personality differ from a nomothetic approach?
- ideographic approach: attempts to understand the individual as an individual. Its primary methodology involves case studies. Believes that each person is different and that what we learn about one individual cannot be easily applied to another.
- nomothetic approach: attempts to understand individuals by comparing them on some measurable quality. This approach is most associated with trait theory. Focuses on the measurement of personality. Attempts to use data from one set of individuals to predict the behavior of another set of individuals.
What are the Big Five personality traits? Why do we believe that they are universal?
- Openness to New Experiences
> down-to-earth, conforming, likes routine VS. imaginative, independent, likes variety
> Disorganized, careless, weak-willed VS. organized, careful, self-disciplined
> retiring, sober, reserved VS. Social, fun-loving, affectionate
> ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative VS. softhearted, trusting, helpful
> Calm secure, self-satisfied VS. worried, insecure, and self-pitying
How do strong situations and weak situations determine how personality is expressed?
- In a strong situation (one with a lot of rules and requires a control of behavior), someone cannot fully express their personality. Because of the rules, everyone ends up needing to look and act the same in order to follow the rules.
Ex: in a classroom
- in a weak situation (one that has few rules), someone can express their personality better. This is because there are less rules on how to behave, and everyone's different personalities will be able to freely express themselves. Ex: at a party or being completely alone
How stable is personality across the lifespan? During what period of life is it most likely to change, and why?
- data suggests that while personality traits are stable through a lifespan, our behavior can change. Ex: extroverts may express themselves differently in their 20s than in their 50s.
- Changes in personalities may be more likely in the development of long-term relationships, career development, and having children.
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