47 terms

Criminology Final

Better late than never
Enterprise Crime
Crimes of the Marketplace
-Involves illicit entrepreneurship and commerce
--Corrupts the free market system
-Can be divided into two distinct categories
--White-collar crim
--Organized Crime
White-Collar Crime
Any business-related act that uses deceit, deception, or dishonesty to carry out criminal enterprise
-Involves illegal activities of people and institutions whose acknowledged purpose is illegal profit through legitimate business transactions.
Extent of White Collar Crime
According to the White Collar Crime Center:
About 2/3 of all Americans will experience at least one white collar victimization in their life
Organized Crime
Illegal activities of people and organizations whose acknowledged purpose is profit through illegitimate business enterprise.
-General characteristics of Organized Crime:
--a. Conspiratorial activity
--b. Continuous commitment of primary members
--c. Economic gain is the primary goal (also power and status)
--d. Not all activities are illicit
--e. Use predatory tactics
--f. Groups are quick and effective in controlling and disciplining
--g. Not always the "Mafia"
--h. Does not include terrorists dedicated to political change
Activities of Organize Crime
Narcotics distribution
Loan sharking
Theft ring
Stock market manipulation
Theories of Organized Crime
ALIEN CONSPIRACY THEORY: belief that organized crime is a direct offshoot of a criminal society that was imported to the US by Europeans who have a policy of restricting membership to people of their own ethnic background.
THE MOB: COSA NOSTRA: the "real" organized crime is made up of 25 Italian dominated families (Gambino, Lucchese, Bonanno, Genovese)
General characteristics of Organized Crime
a. Conspiratorial activity
b. Continuous commitment of primary members
c. Economic gain is the primary goal (also power and status)
d. Not all activities are illicit
e. Use predatory tactics
f. Groups are quick and effective in controlling and disciplining
g. Not always the "Mafia"
h. Does not include terrorists dedicated to political change
How cyber, white collar, and organized crime similar?
They all involve entrepreneurship.
Components of White-Collar Crime
1. Stings and Swindles
2. Chiseling
3. Individual Exploitation of institutional position
4. Influence peddling and bribery
5. Embezzlement and employee fraud
6. Client Fraud
7. Corporate Crime
Stings and Swindles
White-collar crime in which people use their institutional or business position to trick others out of their money
Using illegal means to cheat an organization, its consumers, or both, on a regular basis
Examples: Securities fraud
Individual Exploitation of Institutional Position
Forcing victims to pay for services to which they have a clear right
Influence peddling and bribery
Using one's position to embezzle company funds or appropriate company property for themselves
***Committedd by both blue-collar workers and management.
Client Fraud
Theft by an economic client from an organization that advances credit to its clients or reimburses them for services rendered.
Examples: Insurance fraud, Credit card fraud, fraud related to welfare or Medicare programs, tax evasion
Corporate Crime
When a powerful institution or its representatives violate the laws that restrain these institutions from doing social harm or require them to do social good
Examples: Price fixing, Illegal restraint of trade, False advertising, Practices that violate environmental protection statutes
Do businesses promote white-collar crime?
-Place excessive demands on employees while maintaining a business climate tolerant of employee deviance (Enron)
Hirschi and Gottfredson's white collar crime research
Shows that the demographic distribution of white-collar crime is similar to other crimes.
For example: gender, race, and age ratios are the same for crimes such as embezzlement and fraud as they are for street crimes such as burglary and robbery
Cyber Crime
People using the instruments of modern technology for criminal purposes.
Includes: cyber theft, pornography, identity theft
Identity theft
Using the internet to steal someone's identity and/or impersonate the victim in order to conduct illicit transactions such as committing fraud using the victim's name and identity.
Phishing (Carding, Spoofing)
Illeally acquiring personal information, such as bank passwords and credit card numbers, by masquerading as a trustworthy person or business in what appears to be an official electronic communication, such as an e-mail or instant message.
Public Order Crimes
1. Victimless crimes.
2. Involve acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function effectively
Two broad areas of Public Order Crimes
1. Acts that conventional society considers deviant, sexual practices such as paraphilias, prostitution, and pornography
2. Use of substances that have been outlawed or controlled due to the alleged harm they cause
Law and Morality of Public Order Crimes
1. Legislation of moral issues has continually frustrated lawmakers
2. If there is no victim, can there be a crime?
Social Harm
1. Most societies have long banned or limited behaviors that are believed to run contrary to social norms, customs, and values.
2. Some acts that cause enormous amounts of social harm are legal
Sex Tourism
Overseas trade in prostitution in which men from wealthy countries frequent semi-regulated sex areas in order to procure young girls who are then forced or sold into prostitution
Street Walkers
Prostitutes who work the streets in plain sight of police, citizens, and customers.
Highest incidence of drug abuse.
Bar Girls
Spend their time in bars, drinking and waiting to be picked up by customers.
Brothel Prostitutes
Usually run by madams. Madam employs the prostitutes, supervises their behavior, and receives a fee for her services. Cut is usually 40-60%.
Call Girls
May charge customers thousands per night and may net more than $100,000 per year.
Some gain clients through employment in escort services; others develop independent customer lists.
Middle-class backgrounds.
Escort Services/Call Houses
Some are fronts for prostitution rings.
Both male and female sex workers can be sent out after the client calls an ad in the yellow pages.
Madam maintains a list of prostitutes who are on call rather than living together in a house. Madam can't be arrested because she never meets the client or receives direct payment.
Circuit Travelers
Prostitutes who move in groups of two or three to lumber, labor, and agricultural camps.
Ask foreman for permission to ply their trade, service the whole crew in an evening, and then move on.
Pornography and the Law
While it has gone mainstream, it has long been held that the 1st Amendment was not intended to protect indecency or material considered offensive and obscene.

-Little evidence that it can be controlled or eliminated by legal means alone
--Controlling sex for profit is difficult because of the public's desire to purchase
Causes of Substance Abuse
1. Subcultural view
2. Psychological view
3. Genetic factors
4. Social learning
5. Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS)
6. Rational Choice
Subcultural view
Drug abuse has an environmental basis concentrated on lower-class addiction.
Youth in the lower-class in the inner-city feel alienated and hopeless, and meet established drug users who teach them that narcotics provide the answer to their problems.
Psychological view
Because the problem is not just in the lower-class, people think it may be linked to psychological deficits like:
impaired cognitive functioning
personality disturbance
emotional problems

Surveys show that youngsters with serious behavioral problems were more than 7 times as likely as those with less serious problems to report they were dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs.
Genetic Factors
Substance abuse may have a genetic basis.
Biological children of alcoholics reared by nonalcoholic adoptive parents develop alcohol problems more often than the biological children of the adoptive parents.
Studies of genetic basis of substance abuse sugest that people whose parents were alcoholic or durg dependent havea agreater chance of developing a problem than the children of nonabusers, and this relationship occurs regardless of parenting-style or quality of parent-child relationship.
Social Learning
Social psychs suggest that drug abuse may also result from observing parental drug use.
Children whose parents abuse drugs are more likely to have persistent abuse problems than the children of nonabusers.
Drug involvement begins with using tobacco and drinking alcohol at an early age, which progresses to experimentation with marijuana and hashish and finally cocaine and heroin.
Problem Behavior Syndrome (PBS)****
Longitudinal studies show that drug abusers are maladjusted, alienated, and emotionally distressed and that their drug use is one of many social problems.
Having a deviant lifestyle begins early in life and is punctuated with crminal relationships, family history of substance abuse, educational failure, and alienation.
Experience lots of social problems.
Rational Choice
Some may use drugs and alcohol because they want to enjoy the effects: get high, relax, improve creativity, escape reality, and increase sexual responsiveness.
Substance abuse may be a function of the rational but mistaken belief that drugs can benefit the user.
The World's Most Dangerous Drug
=Cheaper and 3.5X more powerful than cocaine.
=One hit can keep you high for 6 to 12 hours and only costs about $25/hit
=26 million worldwide have used the drug
=85% of property crimes and identity theft in Oregon are by Meth users
=Brian shuts down because damaged from the METH-too much dopamine to too little
=92% of users relapse after treatment
Methamphetamine Damages
Lose teeth= Meth Mouth
Completely ages you and changes your appearance
Hyper, paranoid, delusional and violent
Started on cocaine
First time he took meth he set record for shot put
Who invented Methamphetamine and why?
Took it during war to keep fighting and stay awake.
Concerned about the way Natural Gas is being extracted across the United States
Marcellus Shale
-New York, Ohio, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Saudi Arabia of Natural Gas
Oil and Natural gas
-exempt from Environmental Regulations, clause placed into act by VP CHaney
Hydraulic Fracturing
-occupies 34 states, need 1 to 7 million gallons of water for each attempt
Beer Wars
Anheuser Busch: controls the beer industry
-1. Sells 1 out of every 2 beers
-2. Control the shelf space at the stores
-3. No anti-trust laws in place; lobby white house keep the 3 TIER SYSTEM in place
-4. Illegal to give away free cases of beer
-5. Since the 1930s illegal for brewers to sell directly to consumers
-6. Spend a ton of money on advertisements so consumers only think of their beers
Brewers, Wholesalers and Retailers