International Relations Midterm

Terms in this set (51)

Sticks - intended to push or prod others into action
• Sticks are effective through force OR threat of force (or forced negative consequences)
Military Sticks:
• Military, weapon, or weapon system development
• Military aid/assistance, military technology or intelligence sharing
• Alliances, collective security or peacekeeping
Economic Sticks:
• Economic sanctions, embargoes, freezing international assets/ties, blocking access to economic aid
• Boycotts
• Tariffs
• Dramatic currency exchange interference > domestic econ. Instability.
Carrots - intended to incentivize or induce others into action
Carrots usually effective by "helping" others make "positive" changes
Foreign Assistance
• Project aid (grants or loans for specific projects)
• Program aid (program of continual aid in exchange for certain policy conditions)
• Technical Assistance (provide equipment or training)
• Humanitarian (funds or delivery or food, medicine, supplies, or other basic needs)
• Security aid (military or peacekeeping assistance to allies/partners)
• Development aid (education, birth control, human rights, environmental protection)

Sermons - intended to communicate with others
• Effective as warning or position statements to set expected/future actions
• Intended as tool for moral suasion - often used to convey ideational or moral interests
• Types of Sermons:
o Warnings, directives, & speeches communicated in public political forums OR through global media
Sticks, carrots, and sermons are all types of diplomacy
Great Powers:
• Global Leaders
• Ability to use & sustain military forces beyond own borders
• Large economics & substantial weal
Great Power Foreign Policy Strategies:
• Preservative or promotive foreign strategies
• Survival & self-help against threats (realist viewpoint of IR)
o Mistrust, uncertainty & security dilemmas motivate foreign policies
• Attempt to dominant all policy sectors to assure own interests
Middle Power Characteristics:
• Usually social democracies with significant trade > depend on global stability for survival & prosperity
• Military can defend nation but not capable of long-term aggressive actions
• Economy sufficient for population, but no 'powerhouse" of IPE
Middle Power Foreign Policy Strategies:
Gain & maintain power thorugh interdependence & cooperation (liberal perspective of IR)
Act as;
• Catalysts: provide resources or expertise to take lead in global initiatives
• Facilitators: help to set agendas or build coalitions for global cooperative policies
• Managers: support international or regional institution/regime building & help manager their affairs
Small State Characteristics:
• Small territory, population, and economic power
• Limited military power and capabilities
• Access power in IR thorugh international institutions
Small State Foreign Policy Strategies:
• Act as "norm entrepreneurs" in the international system
o Focus on advocating & supporting specific (niche) norms & values to shape global arena
• Join alliances and global regimes
• Limited global role > So, focus on issues important to region or own citizens (including economic cooperation)
1 ) General Assembly:
Considered "parliament of nations" because all member states come together to deliberate & make decisions
• Each member state = one vote
• To pass "key" decisions (peace & security, budget, new members, etc. ) > 2/3rds majority
• To pass general issues > Must achieve simple majority
• Issues advisory options/recommendations (non-binding)
• Controls the budget
• Coordinates the UN programs & agencies
• Accredits national delegation to the UN
• Appoints non-permanent members to security council
2) Security Council
Main Purpose: maintain international peace & security
15 Members:
• 5 permanent members with veto power (US, UK, Russia, China, France)
• 10 non-permanent members (2 year terms)
Decisions are BINDING - but must be passed by at least 9 of 15 members (and cannot be vetoed)
Main Activities:
• Variety of peacekeeping strategies
• Economic sanctions
• Arms embargo
• Organize and deploy collective military action
3) Secretariat
• Carries out daily administrative/bureaucratic work for UN
• Led by secretary-general (5 year, renewable term)
o Considered UN's independent diplomat, chief administrator, and spokesperson - flexible power/influence
o Current Secretary-General - Ban Ki-Moon
Main Activities:
• Administrative guidance & implementation
• Oversight, ethics, and legal affairs of UN
• Research and education
4) Economic and Social Council
Coordinates economic and social work of UN and its partners
• Responsible for about 70% of human & financial resources of UN as a whole
Works heavily with over 3200 INGOs & NGOs (maintains link between UN and civil society)
Main coordinating group for wide variety of institutions and groups that address social and development issues
• EX) gender rights, education, poverty reduction, natural resource use, diseases, HIV/AIDS, technology, energy, humanitarian & refugee aid.
5) International Court of Justice
Judicial organ of UN based in The Hague, Netherlands - resolves disputes between states
15 judges from variety of countries (elected by general assembly; elected to 9 year terms)
2 main functions:
• Hears & settles disputes between states; states are obligated to comply with decision
• Gives advisory opinions to other UN organs/institutions
Limited effectiveness because:
• Only states can sue (cases only state vs. state)
• Only have compulsory jurisdiction for states who agree to "optional clause" related to ruling (only about 1/3 of members) (You can opt in to sue, or be sued)
• ICJ jurisdiction/rulings can be refused if state believes that own national court addresses the issue
6) Trusteeship Council
Established to supervise "Trust Territories" and promote their progress towards self-government/independence
Led & overseen by Trusteeship Council (US, UK, Russia, China, France)
Suspended operation November 1st, 1994 due to completion of trust territories achieving independence
• Now only meet when necessary