30 terms

# APES Friedland Chapter 7

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Demography
the study of human populations and population trends
Demographers
scientists in the field of demography
Immigration
the movement of people into a country or region, having come from another country or region
Emigration
the movement of people out of a country or region, to settle in another country or region
Crude Birth Rate
the number of births per 1000 individuals per year
Crude Death Rate
the number of deaths per 1000 individuals per year
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
an estimate of the average number of children that each woman in a population will bear throughout her childbearing years
Replacement-Level Fertility
the total fertility rate required to offset the average number of deaths in a population in order to maintain the current population size
Developed Countries
countries with relatively high levels of industrialization and income
Developing Countries
countries with relatively low levels of industrialization and income
Life Expectancy
the average number of years that an infant born in a particular year in a particular country can be expected to live, given the current average life span and death rate in that country
Infant Mortality Rate
the number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1000 live births
Child Mortality Rate
the number of deaths of children under age 5 per 1000 live births
Age Structure Diagrams
diagrams that show the numbers of individuals within each age category, typically expressed for males and females separately
Population Pyramid
an age structure diagram that is widest at the bottom and smallest at the top, typical of developing countries
Population Momentum
continued population growth that does not slow in response to growth reduction measures
Demographic Transition
the theory that as a country moves from a subsistence economy to industrialization and increased affluence it undergoes a predictable shift in population growth
Family Planning
the practice of regulating the number or spacing of offspring through the use of birth control
Affluence
the state of having plentiful wealth; the possession of money, goods, or property
IPAT Equation
Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology
Urban Area
an area that contains more than 385 people per square kilometer (1000 people per square mile)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
a measure of the value of all products and services produced in a country in a year
doubling time
the number of years it takes for a population to double
rule of 70
doubling time in years=70/ growth rate in %
net migration rate
the difference between immigration and emigration in a giver year per 1000 people
phase 1: pre modern
a phase when slow population growth, population is at a nearly steady state, before a country has modernized, CBR=CDR
phase 2: early expanding
a phase when there is rapid population growth, as a country modernizes, population momentum, CBR is greater than CDR
phase 3: late expanding
a phase when the population begins to stabilize, increasing urbanization, almost developed
phase 4: post-industrial
the phase when there is stable population growth, a larger amount of the population is elderly, developed countries, CDR higher than CBR
phase 5: declining
CBR<CDR, less industrial industries and more service and information based industries