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Do producers have any control on price?


Perfect competition -Many well-informed buyers/sellers, is easy to enter/exit the market, and all selling identical products (ex: bus tickets, water, and agriculture)

Perfect Competition

Product that is considered the same, reggardless of who makes it


any factor that makes it difficult for new firms to enter into the market

barrier to entry

expenses that a new business must pay before teh 1st product reaches a customer (internet makes this easier)

start-up costs

Monopoly = ___ seller, ____ product

1, 1

Why do natural monopolies exist?

its more efficient to only have one seller of a product

What are two examples of Natural monopolies?

Utility companies (electric, phone, water, gas, etc.)

What is the advantage of natural monopolies?

Not wasting resources, this is more efficient

Gov. role in natural monopolies?

Regulates/controls the company

What is the type of government monopolies that is set up by patents?

technological patent

Government issued right to be the only producer of that product?


Why do gov. grants patented monopolies?

They want yout o profit from research/development

Examples of an industrial monopoly (in gov. monopolies)

Professional sports leagues

2 examples of gov. monopolies by license:

radio/tv stations

To make your product unlike all of the others -

product differentiation

In a market with only one seller, that seller has a _______


Characteristics that cause a producer's average cost to dropa s production rises are ________

economies of scale

A contract issued by a local authority that gives a single firm the right to sell its goods within an exclusive market is a _______


A monopoly offering targeted discounts is practicing ________

price discrimination

When you charge different groups of people different amounts for the same products =

price discrimination

4 Reasons for Monopolistic Competition Market Structures:

1) Many firms in the market 2) no real strong barriers to entry 3) slight control of price 4) differentiated/similar products

ESSAY QUESTION: Why businesses do "nonprice" and how? 4 reasons:

1) Different physical characteristics (size, color, shape of the product, etc) 2) location (gas, pharmacy, fast food, etc) 3) service (how you take care of the customer/product) 4) advertising image/status (nike, coke, designer purse, etc)

the Curbs on high profits:

1) competition 2) substitute goods

Consumer advantages:

1) wide variety of products at reasonable prices

2-4 businesses that are producing 70-80% of the market =


Conditions encouraging formation of oligopoly:

1) start-up costs 2) economies of scale 3) license/certain level of education

Practices that concern government:

1) price war (cut prices below cost of production) 2) trust (illegal group of companies that discourages companies) 3) cartel -group of businesses that form an oligopoly (drug, oil, etc)

A _____ is most successful when each members agrees and works together to control output


What is deregulation? And name some industries.

Deregulation - removal of some government rules/regulations (airlines, trucking, and bank industry)

What is a merger?

When 2 or more buisnesses become one

Antitrust powers:

Sherman Anti-Trust Act gives government power to stop cartels/monopolies

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