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Physiology terms and Questions Chapter 12
Terms in this set (57)
CNS (central nervous system)
This nervous system contains the spinal cord and the brain
PNS (peripheral nervous system)
This nervous system delivers sensory info to CNS and carries motor commands to systems. Includes all neural tissue outside the CNS.
Commands that your brain tells your body. Can include both voluntary/involuntary movements
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
Nerve cells that carry impulses towards the central nervous system
Nerve cells that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart).
The gap between neurons that allow chemicals to pass through it
This term describes all nerve cells because it comes before the synapse, sending info TO the synapse.
All different type of cells that carry motor commands and comes AFTER the synapse
The endpoint of a neuron where synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters are stored.
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
a part of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body
a layer of fatty tissue that insulates axons and speeds their impulses
Nodes of Ranvier
gaps in the myelin sheath
Part of a neuron that branches out and allows the sending of the same message to different muscles
neurons within the brain and spinal cord that is the communication link between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
visceral sensory receptors
These receptors monitor internal organs
special sensory receptors
These receptors monitor smell, taste, vision, balance, and hearing
Somatic sensory receptors
These receptors monitor skeletal muscles, joints, and skin surfaces
Completely made of dendrites and a cell body, but with no axons. Mystery of science
Dendrites branch out on top sending out messages, axon branches out below. This type of neuron can be found in the eye's retina.
Longest neuron in the body, only has one way in and out of the cell body. Most of the sensory neurons of the peripheral neuron system are made of this type of neuron
The most common neuron of the central nervous system, has many dendrites that allows the integration of much information.
support cells that repair and supply nutrients to neurons
A neuroglia of the CNS that is star shaped and has feet which wrap around capillaries in order to control the flow of nutrients and help maintain homeostasis in the CNS
Blood Brain Barrier (BBB)
a selective barrier, help created by astrocytes, which protects the brain from toxins and infections
A neuroglia of the CNS that produces and circulates cerebrospinal fluid
Type of neuroglia in the CNS that wraps axons in a myelin sheath.
A neuroglia of the CNS that acts as phagocytes, eating damaged cells and bacteria, act as the brains immune system
Neuroglia of the PNS that each wraps a segment of the axon with a myelin
The pull of charges to eliminate a potential difference
How much a membrane restricts ion movement
The combination of electric and chemical forces that acts on membrane potential.
Passive Channels (Leak Channels)
These channels are always open, permeability changes with conditions
Active Channels (Gated Channels)
A type of channel that open and close in response to stimuli
At resting potential, most gated channels are closed
Chemically gated channels
A type of gated channel that open or close when bonded to a chemical like ACh. Most abundant type of channel
Voltage gated chammels
A type of gated channel that open or close in response to changes in membrane potential.
Graded potential(local potential)
Changes in membrane potential that cannot spread too far from the point of stimulus. Essential for continuing propagation.
the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
The shift from resting membrane potential to a more positive potential
The movement of the membrane potential to a more negative direction.
a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport 3 sodium ions out of a cell and 2 potassium ions into the cell
a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired that prevents impulses from going backwards in the axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger an action potential/neural impulse
The spread of the action potential down an axon, caused by successive changes in electrical charge along the length of the axon's membrane.
the "jumping" movement of an action potential from node to node along a myelinated axon, that is more efficient and requires less energy
Action potentials along an unmyelinated axon
Affects one segment of axon at a time.
a type of synapse in which the cells are connected by gap junctions, allowing ions (and therefore the action potential) to spread easily from cell to cell
a type of synapse at which a chemical (a neurotransmitter) is released from the axon of a neuron into the synaptic cleft, where it binds to receptors on the post synaptic cell
A type of chemical synapse where there's a junction between two cells that employs acetylcholine as its transmitter substance.
chemicals released in the nervous system that regulate the movement of neurotransmitters
A neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep, arousal, and mood.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter(not completely understood)
A neurotransmitter associated with movement, attention and learning and the brain's pleasure and reward system.
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