Figure 1) Diagrammatic drawings of sections of the developing wing in the fruit-fly Drosophila. The wing is at first quite solidly constructed. Then it becomes hollow, contracts again (figures 1e, f, g), and finally becomes folded (figures 1h, i).
Figure 2) Four stages in the development of the wing in Drosophila. Figure A shows the wing shortly after the puparium is formed. In B the wing has become inflated, and its venation is obliterated. In C and D it contracts again and its final veination appears. Just after the stage shown in D, the wing becomes folded and remains thus until after the fly emerges from the pupa.
Figure 3) Some genetically controlled abnormalities in the contraction-phase of wing-development in Drosophila. Figure A, B, and C show wings of the mutant race "net" in which there is a partial failure of contraction, which causes the formation of extra veins in some regions. In figures D and E the failure of contraction is much more complete, and bubbles of fluid are left between the two winged-surfaces, which remain so far apart that in many areas no vein appear (muted "bloated"). In figures F, G, and H the contracted does not fail, but is abnormal, so that a wing of characteristically elongated form is produced ( the mutant "blade" in D. pseudo-obscura)
-PTP1B and TCPTP deletion reinstates ARC leptin and insulin sensitivity obesity
-PTP1B and TCPTP Deletion in the ARC promotes weight loss in obesity (weight, feeding, energy expenditure)
-PTPn1 eat less and less effect on energy expenditure PTPn2 eat similarly and have more energy expenditure, since both have more propensity to lose weight
-PTPn1 and PTPn2 and insulin sensitivity. 2 is more sensitive.
-Pair feeding to double ko- shows energy expenditure increase and less food intake
-PTP1B and TCPTP deletion in the ARC represses feeding and increases WAT browning to promote weight- loss.
-Browning is stimulated through neural signaling, through energy expenditure not food intake
-RU486 represses Hypothalamic TCPTP (PTPn1) and promotes WAT browning and Weight loss in obesity, through neuron
-ICV RU486 and Claramine synergistically promote weight loss (decrease in body weight, food intake, fat mass, and energy expenditure)
-Intranasal Targeting of TCPTP and PTP1B promotes weight loss in obesity (every effect plus slight more glucose tolerance)
-Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is coupled to heat production, not ATP,