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a social institution that transmits attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, values, norms, and skills to its members through formal/systematic training

functionalist view

what are the benefits of education

manifest functions

1. socialization
2. knowledge and skills
3. transmission of culture
4. social control
5. research
6. social placement
7. personal growth

latent functions

1. child-care providers
2. match making
3. social networks


failing to do things its intended to do, too focused on standardized tests, dont require language

conflict perspective

do schools perpetuate social inequality

Pierre Bourdie

cultural capital and social class reproduction argument

social class reproduction

big predictor of education based on where you come from/where you stand in society

cultural capital

children from higher economic classes already have more cultural capital knowledge. better equipped to be successful. positive attitude on education


dividing students into groups based on ability. creating pathway to success or not.

hidden curriculum

schools are promoting certain manners/values. have different expectations from students of different social classes.

symbolic interactionist

focus on the classroom dynamics

labeling/self fulfilling prophecy

if you label someone will they start acting like their label? unsubstantiated belief that comes true

teacher-expectancy effect

students will rise to the expectations. the higher the expectations the higher they will rise.

quantity/quality of education

problem with US education

unequal funding

7% is from federal level. the rest is from people in that area leading to differences in education

teacher effectiveness

many teachers are teaching outside their area of expertise

curriculum problems

there is a lack over control of curriculum

dropping out

10% of highschool students dont graduate

grade inflation

1973: 20% earned A
2003: 47% earned A
..basic level of reading went down

school violence

bullying, hazing, etc

promise (?) of education

as many as 38% of college graduates are under employed

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