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7 - The 20's
Terms in this set (48)
the 1920's was a time where Americans...
turned inwards & withdrew from global politics & instead focused on internal innovation/development
During the 1920's thee was a high amount of _______ _________ as tradition & American values were being challenged
Increased emphasis on _______ __________ & new forms of mass media
_______ became the new center of consumption
Why did the home become the new center of consumption?
- Americans began buying household appliances, packaged foods, readymade clothes/cosmetics, etc.
1920's was a time period of increased ________________
Was the prosperity of the 1920's accessible to everyone?
No! Many people were left out
1920's was characterized by a new focus on...
business, individual advancement, & private economic endeavors
white collar workers
people working in professions like accounting, management, healthcare, etc.
Warren G. Harding
- advocated a "return to normalcy"
- argued that the Progressive movement had been a failure
- thought Americans should focus on private pursuits as well as local & domestic issues
- he appointed his friends to high positions (led to Teapot Dome Scandal)
- was responsible for the dismantling of wartime gov. control of industry in favor of more unregulated private businesses
- kinda corrupt tbh
- Teapot Dome Scandal
- died of heart attack & Coolidge became president
Teapot Dome Scandal
the Secretary of Interior was convicted of accepting bribes of over $400,000 for leasing federal oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming - became a symbol for political corruption
- became president after Harding died
- continued/extended Harding's policies of promoting business & limiting gov.
- continued to cut taxes & encourage trade associations to self-regulate rather than relying on gov. regulation
- responsible for making closed shops illegal (illegal for an industry to require employees to belong to a union)
- repealed the minimum wage law for women in D.C.
- nickname= "Silent Cal"; didn't speak much/ had high moral standard
International Policy during the 1920's
- America thought global affairs were NOT the job of Americans
- wanted to focus on internal issues & enjoy American prosperity rather than worrying of wasting resources on international problems
- so basically isolationism
2 examples of international policies that the U.S. continued to practice even as it practiced general isolationism....
1) Washington Disarmament Conference
2) Kellogg-Briand Pact
Washington Disarmament Conference
- hosted by U.S.
- dealt with issue of freedom of the seas & global balance of naval powers
- countries looking to increase their naval power are countries trying to dominate/interfere with trade (Germany)
- 5 countries (G.B., France, Italy, U.S., & Japan) signed a treaty that resulted in the proportional reduction of naval forces
What was the outcome of the Washington Disarmament Conference?
the Five Power Naval Treaty - 5 nations (U.S., Italy, France, G.B., & Japan) signed treaty that resulted in the proportional reduction of naval forces
Five Powers Naval Treaty
agreement between the U.S., Britain, and Japan (as well as France and Italy) to establish naval parity on a 5:5:3 ratio; in exchange for Japan's concession to owning fewer ships, the U.S. and Britain agreed not to fortify their Far Eastern possessions
- declared that the parties would not turn to war as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another
- highly successful & nearly all the nations of the world signed it
- renounced the use of aggression to achieve national ends
Why was the Kellogg-Briand Pact ineffective/useless?
1) It permitted defensive wars (if a country is attacked by another, they were allowed to fight back)
- this allowed countries to reframe their campaigns for aggression against other countries
2) It failed to provide with how countries might take actions against the violators of the agreement
- there was no policy in place for how countries could respond to violators & hold them accountable
- only solution was to resort back to defensive warfare
There was a tremendous increasing in mass ___________ & an increase in ___________ _________
production ; consumer culture
changed the way Americans understood their place in society, where they lived, what they did with their free time, who they visited, & what they hoped their children would do
Increased production led to an increase in ________ ___________
- encouraged loyalty to a company & discouraged traditional labor unions by eliminating reasons for Americans to join unions/start strikes
- businesses pushed for improved safety/sanitation, paid vacation days, & pension plans with the intention that employees would be loyal to the company rather than the labor unions
____ _________ income grew while the cost of living stayed the ssme
___________________ remained low & Americans had excess money to purchase consumer goods
What was introduced to encourage consumers to spend and buy more things?
- the idea that you could pay through installments by putting some money down & making a payment each month
- made it easier for Americans to consume more things
the ability of a customer to obtain goods or services before payment, based on the trust that payment will be made in the future.
The Middletown Study
- focused on the "normal,typical & representative"
- focused on trying to identify what the average American looked like instead of reform
- intended for mass consumption rattan than for the audience of social reformers
- diffused in what a "typical town" in America, a modern industrial community
- the society they studied didn't actually represent the average American at all- everyone was white
What were the 6 tasks of Middletown's way of life?
1) Getting a living
2) Making a home
3) Training the young
4) Engaging in leisure
5) Engaging in religious practice
6) Engaging in community activities
What was the 1920s associated with?
- glamour, leisure activities, & fun
People focused on ________ ______________ rather than social improvment
Women challenged ....
traditional views and beliefs & the traditional home
_________ _______ gave people the time & money to access new media
- became a popular new medium that you didn't have to pay for on a regular basis
- brought images/fantasies of the so-called "ordinary life" into the American home & emphasized the everyman
- news stories were over-exaggerated bc news was constantly played/created
- people began to perceive whatever was portrayed on the radio as ordinary even if it only represented a very small minority of the American people
Why was the radio so important/influential?
it enables the American people to listen to the voices of political candidates without leaving home or relying on the newspaper & introduced advertising (encouraging people to consume more products)
pilot who was the first to fly solo across the Atlantic ocean in 1927
Focus on ______ __________ was what happened with prohibition after WWI
Why didn't Prohibition work?
it created more harm than good - did the opposite of what it wanted to do
- it fueled organized, secret crime & encouraged a general disrespect for the law
- people discovered there was a secret thrill to breaking the law & this made becoming a criminal a relatively low bar to cross
- many citizens began to break the law- it was easy to do
- alcohol related deaths rose as alcohol quality was unregulated
- has negative impact on production as people were taken out of producing legal goods into producing illegal goods
- funded the growth of gangs in major cities
- increase in violence
- increase in poverty bc alcohol was much more expensive
Americans challenged _________ & ________ in the 1920's
tradition & culture
people who moved around illegal alcoholic beverages & made a lot of money off of the black market
The "New Woman" of the 1920s
- proposed new alternatives to traditional gender roles, had more freedom
How did women increasingly break the traditional gender roles of women?
- they drank/smoked, wore skimpy dresses
- wore revealing clothes & lived dangerous, carefree lifestyles
- they participated in consumer culture
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
- had self-consciousness & self-confidence that led to artistic accomplishments
- they still had hope in the American promise
- they were concentrated in urban centers in the North; which led to overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, & segregation
Harlem Renaissance (1920s)
- created a distinctive African American culture that drew on identities as Americans & people of African heritage
- based in Harlem, a NY neighborhood
- attempted to defeat racial discrimination & violence with creativity
- used poems, paintings, plays, songs, & novels
- wanted to express themselves without fear of shame
The Lost Generation
- a groups of writers/artists who felt alienated from America's mass culture/society
- argued the focus on the typical American & consumption was shallow & materialistic/anti-intellectual
- fled to Europe
- includes Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, F. Scott Fitzgerald, etc.
- they witnessed tremendous sacrifices Americans had given in order to commit to a more progressive world
- disappointed in the failure of Progressive reform & the focus on isolationism/materialism
- believed Americans had given up hope & possibility of American prosperity
In the 1920's there was an increase in _________ sentiment & new anti-___________ measures
- limited the total number of immigrants from outside the Western hemisphere to 161,000 per year
- gave quotas to the number of people from each given nation that could come to the U.S.
- cut immigration by 88% & addresses the growing concern that America had become a dumping place for unwanted people
- goal was to maintain the "racial preponderance of the basic strain of our population"
- discouraged immigration from Eastern/Southern Europe
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
6 - WW1
8 - The Great Depression
9 - World War II
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