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final exame sos

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To be classified as a society, what are the two key qualities a group of people must share?
A common culture and a territory
Based on the theories formulated by Karl Marx, what was the ultimate goal of the proletariat?
The proletariat sought to develop a classless society free of exploitation.
The Hawthorne effect occurs when the participants in a study ...
change their behavior because they are aware they are being studied.
Durkheim introduces________ to express the degree to which people feel part of a social group.
Social integration
Jack views society as a system of interrelated parts, while Jill views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Jack would be considered a ______ theorist and Jill would be seen as a _______ theorist.
Functionalist: conflict
When sociologists study a group of people on the basis of a society's categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job and income they are trying to determine...
Social location
Knowledge and people's conception of ( and therefore belief regarding) what reality is becomes embedded into the institutional fabric and structure of society, and social reality is therefore said to be a ...
social construction
Marshall is exploring how the various aspects of the Lenape culture fit together including their religion, family values, agricultural efforts, and customs without judging those elements as being inferior or superior to modern Western ways, In doing so , what sociological practice is Marshall practicing?
Cultural relativism
Mark and Sally went walking in the park. Both of them were wearing nothing on the upper half of their bodies. In American culture, Mark would be violating a ______ and Sally would be violating a _____.
Folkway; more
Most gestures are universal and serve as an international method of communication. T/F
False
United States society contains thousands of subcultures. T/F
True
How do members of a society acquire the ability to use and understand gestures?
Most gestures are learned through interaction with others.
The study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. It also studies how dialects differ between groups separated by certain social variables.
Sociolinguistics
__________ is the statistical study of human populations (studies changes in a population size of type).
Demography
__________ is the study of inequality and class structures; as well as the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society.
Social Stratification
This discipline within the Liberal Arts is comparable to applied psychology in that its central purpose is not to understand human behavior but rather to help people, group, and communities cope more effectively with their personal and social problems; relying heavily on sociological and psychological research and theory.
Social Work
Three campus roommates are talking about why they are in college. A sociological view of going to college highlights the effect of :
age, because college students tend to be young; class, because college students tend to come from families with above-average incomes; our place in history, because a century ago going to college was not an option for most people.
_____________ is an economic system distinct from capitalism which advocates state, worker or public ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods, and a society characterized by free and equal access to resources for all individuals with an egalitarian method of compensation.
Socialism
The cajun mardi gras can be considered a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood. T/F
True
The main difference between the urban Mardi Gras and the rural ( Cajun) Mardi Gras is....
The audience begs int he urban but not in the Cajun
_______ is a form of government in which the state operates under a one-party system.
Communism
_________ is a political-economic theory that holds a critical analysis of capitalism and a theory of social change.
Marxism
Cultures differ in terms of
What triggers emotions; the rules for how people display emotions; how much people are being emotional.
The Amish are good example of a subculture. T/F
False
What term describes the unique image we hold of who we are?
the self
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?
Our self concept develops from interaction with others.
To what sociological persppective is Measd's theory of human development most aligned?
Symbolic interactionist
Based on Piaget's model, in which stage do children become "young philosophers" who are capable of abstract thinking?
the formal operational stage
* What term refers to this concept of self regulation based on socialization?
Our social mirror
As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive stuffed animals and gifts that are more passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?
gender socialization
According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?
Through play and social interaction
What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called?
resocialization
According to research and the article on men's liberation, the average wife still does approximately double the housework of the average husband. T/F
True
What is NOT true about social life in Sweden ?
Despite the new parental leave laws, the stereotype of masculinity has changed very little.
According to the article on men's liberation, men dominate most of the job titles expected to grow the most in the next decade. T/F
False
What three variables does the author recognize as being especially significant in determining one's social class?
occupational prestige, income, and education
Which of the following statements summarizes the Thomas theorem?
If people define situations as real,. they are real in their consequences.
What is primary reason for the differences people have in behavior and attitude?
their location in the social structure
A[n] __________ designates social position while a[n] _________ designates socially expected behavior.
status; role
What term descrives a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?
Ascribed status
In the horticultural society some members engaged in art, metal working, carpentry, and occupations other than those related to food production. What term describes this specialization of work?
division of labor
The Amish dress alike, have uniform standards on apperance, worship the same, and believe that everything they own is for the communal good. What term did Durkheim use to describe such a relationship among people of society?
Social Intergration
Erving Goffman refers to someone ignoring a flaw in someone else's dramaturgical performance as __________.
Tact
After studying the use of personal space in several cultures, what conclusion did Edward Hall reach regarding the amount of space people prefer?
The amount of personal space people prefer varies from one culture to another.
What was the term Durkheim used to describe the shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks?
Mechanical solidarity
What term applies to the mechanisms society develops to meet its basic needs, such as family religion, education, and medicine?
social institutions
What of the following are true about the salmon being considered for US consumption?
None of the above
Which description best descibes what qualifies as a group?
People who think of themselves as belonging together and interact with one aonther, such as this sociology class.
What is the "rationalization of society"?
The belief that bureaucracies would come to dominate social life.
Guy is a NASA engineer working on proposals for the first manned mission to Mars. Sociologically, what is NASA in relationship to Guy's life?
It is a secondary group because NASA serves as buy's employer and space travel is his vocational interest.
Becky has placed pictures of her two children, the family dog, and her summer vacation on the walls of her work cubicle. By doing so, what is Becky trying to accomplish?
She is taking steps to resist alienation
What was the concllusion reached by Stanley Milgram in his " teacher-learner" experiment?
Some people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
What conclusion did Georg Simmel reach with respect to the size of a group?
As groups grow smaller, the become less stable.
What term describes the use of a computer at work to download music, gamble, play games. and e-mail friends around the world?
cyberslacking
The March of Dimes was originally formed to find a cure for polio. When that occurred it changed its goal to prevent birth defects. Now it simply promotes "healthier babies" as its goal. What is such a change in an organization's mission to perpetuate its existence called?
goal displacement
What conclusion can be drawn from Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity?
Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not ture.
The main theme of the documentary "Quiety Rage" that we viewed during class was which of the following?
That the power of the situatuion is stronger than the individual.
In the documentary "Quiet Rage" the prisoners lost their identites within a couple of days. This can be explained by which of the following?
All of these
In the documentary "Quiet Rage", the prisoners and the guards took on their assigned toles completely, so much so that it became their identites throughout the experiment. WHich of the following concepts illustrates this?
All of these
The Stanford prison experiment is an example of which subdiscipline of sociology?
All except for Cultural Sociology
In china two dead people can get married. T/F
True
What is deviant in mostly the same all around the world. T/F
False
Which sociological perspective is most aligned with a theorist who sees the law as an insturment of repression and a tool designed to maintain the powerful in thier privileged positions?
conflict perspective
What concept refers to the formal and informal means of enforcing norms.
social control
Whcih of the following is an example of social control?
the legal system, parents grounding a child, and friends criticizing one another.
Assume you were lsitening to a lecture on Durkheim's approach to deviance. Which of the following statements would be the foucs of the lecture?
Deviance is a normal element of social organization.
What are the two major techniques that society has for anchoring people to protect them from becoiming prison inmates?
Marriage and education
THe basic idea behind labeling theory is that:
deviance is actually useful in a number of ways., deviance aries not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do, power has much to do with how a society defines deviance.
What are the two primary variables addressed in strain theory, each of which contributes to determing an individuals mode of adaptation?
cultural goals and institiuaitonalzed means
Base on his famous theory explaining the cause of deviance and crime, what would Edwin Sutherland consider as the underlying cause of deviance?
group association
WHich sociological perspective is most aligned with the relativiey of deviance ?
symbolic interaction
Which socilolgical perspective stresses the concept that we help to produce our own orientations to life?
symbolic ineractionist perspective
Based on Merons strain theory, what is the most popular mode of adaptation?
conformity
The concept of the design og the _________ shaped prison is to allow an observer to observe all prisoners without the prisoners being able to tell if they were being observede or not thus conveying a sentiment of an invisible omniscience.
panopticon
Foucault applied the idea of the prison in #21 to what concept peraining to behvaior in modern social life?
self policing
Whitle collar crime has more victims more economic loss and is more pervasive than street crime. T/F
True
The most expenisve form of corporate theft is?
price fixing
The worst corporate offenders are
large transnational corporations
Motor vehicle, oil and pharmaceutical companies are the 3 most likely types of corporations to commit serious crime. T/F
True
What is the division of large numvers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and presitge?
social stratification
Slavery in the USA was casued by severe reacismm which saw black people form Africa as inferior to white people of European decent. T/F
False
Based on the research of Melvin Tumin, what is the best predictor of being accepted to a college or university in America?
The family income of a student
Traditionally, what were the three facotrs on which slavery was based?
war, debt, crime
Sally is eimplyed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. How would Marx assess Sally's reasoning?
Sally is experiencing false consciousness
What is the name of the legislation that allows impoert and export of raw materials and finished products between Mexico and US without taxations?
The North American Free Trade Agreement
What did Marx believe wa the primary facotr that distingusihed the different classes under industrial capitalism?
relationship to the means of production
In every society the world, gender is a basis for social stratification. T/F
True
Functionalists believe that becasue social inequality is universal, inequality must help societies to survive. T/F
True
What are the three components Max weber believed comprise ones social class?
property power prestige
The article on the Body rituals was an example of
cultural sociology and cultural anthropology, amereican cultural life, an ethnomethodology
According to EPA estimates ninety perecnt of the 292 million tons of toxic waste produced each year by the US corporations is disposed of improperly. T/F
True