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A&P Unit 2 Tissues and Integumentary
Terms in this set (17)
4 major tissue types
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
where are the major tissues located?
Epithelial - cover body surfaces and lines internal organs
Connective - widely distributed all over the body
Muscle - attached to bones, walls of hollow internal organs, and heart
Nervous - brain, spinal cord, nerves
Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissues.
Characteristics - lack blood vessels, readily divide, cells are tightly packed
Functions - protection, secretion, absorption, excretion
Name the types of epithelium, and for each type, identify an organ in which that type is found.
1) simple squamous - lungs
2) simple cuboidal - kidneys
3) simple columnar - uterus
4) pseudostratified columnar - respiratory system
5) stratified squamous - esophagus
6) stratified cuboidal - pancreas
7) stratified columnar - pharynx
8) transitional - various organs in the urinary tract
9) glandular - glands??
Explain how glands are classified.
they are classified based on what they excrete.
Compare and contrast the general cellular components, structures, fibers, and extracellular (where applicable) in each type of connective tissue.
Extracellular - consists of fibers, ground substance, and fluid
Macrophages - originate as wbc, wandering cell, carry on phagocytes, clear foreign particles
Mast Cells - fixed cell, located near blood vessels, release heparin and histamine
Fibroblasts - blast out fibers, most common fixed cell, secrete proteins to the ECM
Explain the major functions of each type of connective tissue.
Macrophages defend the cell by clearing foreign particles. Mast cells release heparin and histamine. Fibroblasts secrete proteins to the ECM.
Distinguish among the four major types of membranes.
Serous - simple squamous + loose connective, secrete serous fluid: serves as lubricant. Ex: plural and peritoneal membranes
Mucous - epithelium + loose connective, secrete mucus: provides protection. Ex: Digestive
Cutaneous - Skin, stratified squamous,
Synovial - entirely connective tissue, lines joints, secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint
Distinguish among the three types of muscle tissues.
Skeletal - attached to bones, controlled by conscious effort, alternating light and dark striations
Smooth - walls of hollow internal organs, no striations, involuntary muscles
Cardiac - only in the heart, striated, joined by intercalated discs and form branched networks
Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissues.
Neurons - sense change and respond by transmitting nerve impulses, coordinate, regulate, and integrate body activities
Neuroglial Cells - bind and support nervous tissue, carry on phagocytes, connect neurons to blood vessels, play a role in cell to cell communication
Define organ, and name the large organ of the integumentary system.
An organ is formed by two or more tissues grouped together and performing specialized functions. The skin is the largest organ in the integumentary system.
List the general functions of the skin.
regulates body temp
retard water loss
houses sensory receptors
synthesizes various biochemicals
Explain how the skin helps regulate body temperature.
Hypothalamus senses the temperature of the blood. When it is high, it sends signals to effectors. This causes vasodilation, which brings hot blood to the skin to radiate heat outside. When temp is low, it sends out signals to effectors. This causes vasoconstriction, which routes blood away from skin in order to conserve heat to the core.
Describe the events that are part of wound healing.
Epithelial cells along the wound stimulate. They divide more rapidly to fill the gap. Scab formed from dermal vessel blood. Fibroblasts form collagenous fibers that bind edges of the wound together. If the wound is extensive, the new connective tissue may appear as a scar.
Describe the structure of the layers of the skin.
Summarize the factors that determine skin color.
Skin colors is based on the amount of melanin and the distributions and size of pigment granules.
Describe the anatomy and physiology of each accessory structure of the skin.
Nails - produced by epithelium cells in the lunula - protective covers
Hair Follicles - develops from epidermal cells of the follicle - nourished by dermal blood vessels - cells divide and get pushed upward, keratinize, and die
Sebaceous Glands - holocrine gland associated with hair follicle - release fatty material and cellular debris - keeps skin soft, waterproof, pliable - acne is a disease of glands
Sweat Glands - coiled tube - primarily water but had salts and wastes - Eccrine sweat glands respond to elevated body temp - apocrine glands respond to emotional stress
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