Chapter & Biology- Clack
Terms in this set (53)
Why is bioethanol often added to gasoline?
Ethanol is a renewable resource that can increase fuel efficiency and lover vehicle emissions
Which of the following is a good reason for using fast-growing trees as fuel?
Vigorously growing plants remove a lot of carbon dioxide from the air.
The ultimate energy source that supports most life on Earth is _____.
Plants are photosynthetic autotrophs. What does this mean?
They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules
Photosynthetic membranes are found in _______.
The end products of photosynthesis are _____ and _____.
glucose.... molecular oxygen
Which of the following includes some of the benefits of photosynthesis?
It is an oxygen source as well as a source of stored energy.
Which of the following is produced by the light reactions of photosynthesis and consumed by the Calvin cycle
Global climate change could be magnified by __________.
Which of the following is an autotroph
Photosynthesis contributes to plant growth by _____.
taking in carbon dioxide and making sugars (carbohydrates)
Within the inner membrane of a chloroplast, interconnected sacs of membrane called ______ are suspended in a thick fluid called the ______.
What is the function of the stomata?
Through what structure(s) do plants obtain most of their water?
What name is given to the membranous sacs found within a chloroplast?
What is grana?
stacks of membranous sacs
If you provided your shade-tolerant plants with their preferred wavelength of light, but only minimal amounts of water, which of the following would you expect to occur?
decreased amounts of ATP being produced by the plants
Which of the following equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
In photosynthesis, redox reactions ultimately transfer electrons from ______ to ______.
Which of the following is produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis
The Calvin cycle requires ______ and ______ from the light reactions in order to operate.
ATP and NADPH
The products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are ______.
ATP and NADPH
Refer to the accompanying figure. Plant cells that contain the organelle responsible for photosynthesis are concentrated in cells of the ______.
In the electromagnetic spectrum, the type of radiation that we call visible light occurs between __________.
UV radiation and infrared radiation
As a consequence of the work of the biologist Theodor Engelmann, others showed that chloroplasts absorb light mainly in the _____ and _____ part of the spectrum
blue-violet ... red-orange
Which pigment participates directly in the light reactions by absorbing mainly blue-violet and red light?
The _____ the wavelength of light, the _____ the energy of a photon
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by other electrons obtained by __________.
The color that we see when looking at a pigmented object is ______.
the wavelengths that are reflected or transmitted by the pigmented object
If a plant appears blue to us, what wavelength of light is being reflected?
The energy of wavelengths that appear ______ is least useful to photosynthesis.
What is responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of leaves in the fall?
What is one reason why plants have accessory pigment molecules, like chlorophyll b and carotenoids?
to absorb energy in parts of the electromagnetic spectrum that chlorophyll a cannot
What name is given to a discrete packet of light
The shorter the wavelength of visible light, the ______.
greater the energy
When a molecule absorbs a photon, one of its electrons is raised to the ______ state.
Which of the following is a way that a molecule releases energy gained by absorption of a photon
all of the above
Where are photosystems located?
What compound is found at the reaction center of a photosystem
The light reactions of photosynthesis take place ______.
in the thylakoid membrane
______ is the source of the oxygen gas released by a photosystem.
Which of the following is the source of electrons for the light reactions?
Which of the following is found in both cellular respiration and in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
electron transport chain
In photosynthesis, an H+ ion gradient forms across the ______.
Refer to the accompanying figure. Which of the following is true regarding the behavior of a chlorophyll molecule as it absorbs a photon?
The energy of a photon raises an electron to the excited state.
Refer to the accompanying figure. Which of the following best describes the direct mechanism of ATP production during photosynthesis?
use of the energy stored in hydrogen ion (H+) gradients; the potential energy of the proton gradient is released as the protons move down their gradient through special membrane protein channels; this energy is converted to chemical bond energy in the ATP molecule
The overall function of the Calvin cycle is __________.
Where does the energy for the Calvin cycle come from?
NADPH and ATP
Forests are considered carbon storage sinks because __________.
carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle to make glucose, which is used to make wood and other tree molecules.
C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because __________.
C4 plants can shuttle CO2 to the sites of photosynthesis even when their stomata are closed to conserve water
The Calvin cycle makes direct use of ______ to make ______.
CO2, ATP, and NADPH... sugar
C4 plants conserve water by ______.
keeping their stomata closed when the weather is hot and dry
CAM plants conserve water by ______.
opening their stomata only at night
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