Biology Exam 3

Be able to explain how sex-linked genes and traits behave and why these are examples of non-mendelian genetics
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Bacteria harbor extra chromosomal DNA called plasmids. Bacterial restriction enzymes that restrict or cut DNA were identified and purified to use in cutting DNA at defined restriction sites. Restriction enzymes plus a ligase enable the cutting and pasting (ligation) of genes into plasmids. You can visualize DNA with gel electrophoresis. insulin can be made from a plasmid carrying the insulin gene in E coli. To put a plasmid into a bacterial host the cell needs to be made component by treatment with a special buffer. Then the plasmid DNA is incubated with the
cells and is absorbed. The cells are said to be
. By growing the
cells subsequently in the presence of an antibiotic, the plasmid is maintained
in the cells.
Viruses have a protein coat with or without membrane; Information carried by DNA or RNA. Virus binds to specific
receptor on surface of host cell. Virus needs to "hijack" a cell's enzymes to make more virus. Examples: bacteriophage, HIV, influenza. Giant mimiviruses, with 900 genes, found in oceans.
~8% human genome is viral DNA that we acquired during vertebrae evolution.
How did Zika Virus reach Brazil?Travel from French Polynesia.Understand the reading about Ebola. Answer the questions.Covid-19 and SARS-CoV-2: be able to explain it at level of info given here.Corona Virus Disease 2019 [COVID-19] SARS-CoV-2 is the name of the virus, S evere A cute R espiratory S yndrome-CoV-2 Some corona viruses cause the common cold. But the SARS-CoV are very dangerous. The first epidemic by SARS-CoV-1 was 2002-4. Bats likely reservoir in wild & spread SARS to other animals: civet for SARS -1, pangolin? for SARS-2.How does HIV cause AIDS? What are some signs and symptoms of AIDS?HIV attaches to mucosal cells, multiplies, buds out to infect dendritic cells (a white blood cell type), carried to lymph nodes, there infects CD4 Helper T cells [TH]and disrupts cellular immunity to all pathogens.Why can the human body not destroy and eliminate HIV?the virus conceals itself in lymphocytes, or white blood cells, that are intrinsically hard to kill because they are resistant to killer T cells. The antibodies cannot reach.When and where did HIV originate? Are there many cases in Minnesota?What are some high risk groups, myths and challenges of AIDS? What is AZT?Know the current hypothesis of how the first cell on earth started. Have all of the steps been demonstrated in labs?Understand the age of the earth and when various cell types began.Differentiate the 3 domains of life and know what kind of organisms in each.Be able to explain how bacteria (eubacteria) and archaea differ.Describe how bacteria reproduce and how they obtain nutrients.What are some harmful and useful things that bacteria can do for us?What trend occurred in the 20th century regarding death from bacterial disease?Understand how bacteria participate with certain plant roots to make nitrogen available to plants (nitrogen fixation)How can metagenomics help us study the bacteria that we cannot grow?Be able to explain what protists are, what they do and give a few examples. Are any of them pathogens (causing illness)?Understand what defines fungi, their ecological, medical and commercial roles.What is unusual about the makeup of the cell wall of fungi? Its digestion?How does a lichen symbiosis benefit each partner? Know what two kinds of organisms are found in a lichen.Be able to explain the causes and effects of white-nose syndrome.What is the ecological role of bats?Describe what is meant by amphibian decline and what factor(s) is/are thought to be responsible. What is the role of fungus?HALFWAY DONE WITH THE SEMESTER! WOOHOO! :)Thanks for everything you have helped me with! I really appreciate it!