Casualty Definitions 2020

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 131
Terms in this set (131)
A licensed producer who solicits insurance or aids in placing risks, delivering policies or collecting premiums on behalf of an insurance company. Agents effectuate insurance.

Insurance Producer means a person required to be licensed under the laws of this state to sell, solicit, or negotiate insurance. The term insurance producer does not include title insurance agents or surplus lines brokers.
A form on which the prospective insured states facts requested by the insurance company and on the basis of which (together with any information from other sources) the insurance company decides whether or not to accept the risk, modify the coverage offered, or decline the risk.

Before an insurance policy can be issued, the prospective insured must apply to the insurance company. The producer and the applicant fill out an application form that is then forwarded to the insurance company. The application is the insured's offer. An offer is one of the necessary elements of a contract.
Basic Extended Reporting PeriodAn automatic tail for reporting claims after expiration of a claims-made liability policy. It is provided without charge and consists of two parts: a mini-tail covers claims made within 60 days after the end of the policy; a midi-tail covers claims within five years after the end of the policy period arising out of occurrences reported not later than 60 days after the end of the policy.Binder (Binding Receipt)A binder is an acknowledgement (usually from the agent) that insurance applied for is in force whether or not the premium has yet been paid or the policy issued (a.k.a. Temporary Insuring effect, until the policy is issued). Guaranteed Coverage!Bodily Injury LiabilityThe liability which may arise from injury or death of another person.BondAn obligation of the surety company (a.k.a. the Guarantor) to protect a person/company (a.k.a. Obligee) against financial loss caused by the acts of another (a.k.a. Principal or Obligor).BrokerA licensed producer who represents an insured in the solicitation, negotiation or procurement of contracts of insurance on behalf of the consumer. A broker must be bonded with a $2,500 bond OR a bond in the amount of 5% of the premiums brokered in the previous calendar years, whichever is greater, not to exceed $100,000.BurglaryTheft of insured property by breaking and entering into the premises of another. There must be visible signs of forced entry or exit of the premises for burglary.CancellationTermination by the insurance company or insured before the anniversary or renewal date, of a contract of insurance which is in force. Usually requires a return of premium.Casualty InsuranceThe type of insurance that is primarily concerned with losses caused by injuries to persons and legal liability imposed upon the insured for such injuries or for damage to property of others. It also includes insurance against crimes such as Robbery, Burglary and Forgery; Aviation; and Auto insurance.Causes of Loss FormsCommercial property forms which state the perils insured against, additional coverages provided, and exclusions that apply. There are four Causes of Loss Forms: Basic, Broad, Special, and Earthquake.Certificate of AuthorityA document issued by the Office of the Insurance Commissioner giving the authority to transact insurance business in a specified state. Once an insurer is "authorized" to do business in a state, they are referred to as "admitted" in that specific state.Certificate of InsuranceA legal document that specifies an insurance policy has been issued. Examples of a Certificate of Insurance: your auto insurance card or your group insurance card.Civil Lawdeals with disputes between individuals. In criminal law, the government prosecutes and individual in the interest of society for violating laws written to protect the public. Criminal and dishonest acts of an insured are NOT covered under insurance policies.Claims-Made CoverageA policy providing liability coverage only if a written claim is made during the policy period or any applicable extended reporting period. For example, a claim made in the current year could be charged against the current policy even if the injury or loss occurred many years in the past. If the policy has a retroactive date, an occurrence prior to that date is not covered. Contrast this with Occurrence Coverage.CoinsuranceA provision that says the insured agrees to insure a certain value (such as 80%). If there is a loss and the insured has breached this agreement, only a proportional share of the loss will be paid (IS insured for, over SHOULD BE insured for, times the loss.)Collision CoverageThe upset of your covered auto or a non-owned auto or its impact with another vehicle or object.Commercial General Liability (CGL) Coverage PartGeneral liability coverage which may be written as a monoline policy or as part of a commercial package. The latest coverage forms include Occurrence or Claims-Made.Commercial Package Policy (CPP)A commercial lines policy that contains more than one of the following seven coverage parts: Property, General Liability, Inland Marine, Crime, Equipment Breakdown, Commercial Automobile, and Farm.Common Policy DeclarationsA common declarations page is part of every commercial policy. It shows information applicable to the entire policy (policy number, insurer, insured, total premium, interline endorsements, coverage parts, forms attached, etc.).Compensatory Damage(a.k.a. Actual Damage) is a term which encompasses specific and general damages. Compensatory damages are intended to compensate (pay or indemnify) someone for both the tangible and intangible elements of a loss. Includes compensation for pain and suffering.Completed Operations Liability InsuranceLiability insurance coverage for bodily injury and property damage arising out of the completed operations of a business.ConcealmentDeliberate failure to reveal facts. If found to be material in nature, a concealment would affect the validity of a policy of insurance, this is opposed to a misrepresentation, which is a LIE.Conditional Contractrefers to the fact that insurance contracts are conditional. That is, the insurance company is obligated to pay a claim based on the condition that premiums were paid and a proof of loss was submitted to the insurance company.Conditions of a Policyset the rules of conduct, duties and obligations for the parties of an insurance contract. A number of common insurance conditions describe such things as the policy territory, obligation of the insured following a loss, how claims are settled and handled when insurance is involved, and each party's right to cancel the policy. Depending on the type of policy, conditions may be found in a "Conditions" section or scattered throughout the policy.Consideration(Something of Value exchanged by two parties) - is an element of an insurance contract. Consideration is the payment of the premium and statements made by the prospective insured in the application. It is the insurance company's promise to pay for losses.ContractAn agreement between two or more parties which is enforceable by law.Contract of Adhesionmeans that since the insurer prepares the provisions of the contract and the policyholder simply adheres (or agrees) to them, a court will rule in favor of the insured if there is any ambiguity in the contract terms. The contract is issued as a take-it-or-leave-it proposition. The insured must accept it as is.Coverage TriggerA mechanism that determines whether a policy covers a particular claim for loss. For example, the difference between the coverage triggers of liability occurrence forms and claims made forms is that loss must occur during the policy period in the first case and the claim must be made during the policy period in the second case.CustodianIn crime insurance, a custodian is the insured or a regular employee or partner of the insured, who has care or control of property within the premises. This definition does not include a watchperson or janitor.DefamationAn unfair business and trade practice in which one person or company makes false or inaccurate statements about another party with the intent of injuring the reptutation of that party.Directors and Officers(D & O) of corporations need liability coverage insurance because they can be sued as individuals by the stockholders. The coverage is necessary because general liability coverage of the business will NOT cover their personal liability and personal liability NOT cover their exposure related to business activity.Declarations ("Dec Page")A term used in insurance for the portion of the contract which contains information such as the name and address of the insured, the property insured, its location and description, the policy period, the amount of insurance coverage, applicable premiums, and supplemental representations by the insured.Degree of Careis the care that must be exercised to keep others from harm or injury.Domestic InsurerAn insurance company that conducts business transactions in the state where they are incorporated. Examples of Washington State's domestic companies are Pemco and Safeco.Drive Other Car (DOC)This endorsement protects the insured when a negligent act results in bodily injury or property damage to a third party while the insured is driving a nonowned car.Earned PremiumThat portion of a premium for which the policy protection has already been given during the now-expired portion of the policy term. The premium the insurance company has earned the right to keep.Employment Practices Liability Insurance (EPLI)A relatively new form of liability insurance. It provides protection for an employer against claims made by employees, former employees, or potential employees. It covers discrimination (age, sex, race, disability, etc.), wrongful termination of employment, sexual harassment, and other employment-related allegations. It covers the company, including its Directors and Officers.EndorsementA provision added to a policy which broadens or restricts coverage. This may also be in the form of a rider. It is not valid unless signed by an executive officer of the company and attached to and made part of the policy.ExclusionsPerils, conditions or property listed in the policy which are not covered and for which no benefits are payable.Exclusive RemedyWorkers' Compensation statues limit a worker's remedies for work-related injuries to a workers' comp claim against the employer. The worker's sole remedy against the employer will be through the Workers' Compensation system. Thus, workers' compensation coverage is referred to as the "exclusive remedy" available to an injured worker.ExpirationThe date specified in the policy as the date that coverage ends or terminates.Extended Reporting Period (ERP)A period allowing for making claims after expiration of a claims-made liability policy. Also known as a tail.Extra Expense Coverage FormA commercial property form designed to cover extra expenses incurred by a business that remains in operation following a property loss.Fair Credit Reporting ActFederal law requiring an individual to be informed if he or she is being investigated by an inspection company. This law requires that the consumer must be notified that a credit report will be sought and told how it will be used. The consumer must be told how to obtain a copy of the report. Information on the credit report can be disputed, and if the reporting agency cannot prove the disputed information is accurate, the information must be removed from the person's file within 30 days.Fidelity BondWill reimburse an employer for loss sustained by the employer (Obligee) by reason of any dishonest act of an employee (Principal) covered up to the amount of the bond.FiduciaryA person who occupies a position of special trust and confidence (for example, in handling or supervising the affairs or funds of another). A producer has fiduciary responsibilities to his clients from whom he collects premiums.Financial Responsibility Liability LawA Washington State law requiring motorists to furnish evidence of ability to pay liability damages to a third party, either before or after an accident. In the State of Washington, there are three ways to prove financial responsibility: bond, cash or insurance (of 25/50/10) in the amount of $60,000.First Named InsuredSome commercial policies use the term first named insured. In the commercial field, it is possible to have many named insureds on the same policy. By making the "first named insured" and the insurer the primary parties responsible for carrying out contractual duties, the process of meeting policy obligations has been simplified.Foreign InsurerAn insurance company doing business in a specific State, but is incorporated in another State.ForgeryThe process of making, adapting, or imitating objects or documents, with the intent to deceive. A forgery is essentially concerned with a produced or altered object. Forgery is one of the techniques of fraud, including identity theft.FraudAn intentional misrepresentation or deceit with the intent to induce another to part with something of value. For example, filing a false claim. Generally, a lie on an application is considered a misrepresentation by NOT fraud.Garagekeepers Liability Policy (Form)When added to the Garage Form Auto Coverage, this loss covers losses to automobiles in the insured's care, custody and control.General Aggregate LimitA Commercial General Liability limit that applies to all damages paid for bodily injury, property damage, personal injury, advertising injury, and medical expenses, except damages included in the products-completed operations hazard. Products Coverage has its own aggregate.General DamagesA broader term that may include a number of intangible elements which cannot be specifically measured in terms of dollar amounts, such things as pain and suffering for bodily injury.HazardAnything that increases the chance of a loss, such as an old roof, bald tires, being overweight, smoking, etc.Insurable InterestAny interest in a subject of insurance or any legal relation to it of such a nature that a certain happening might cause monetary loss to the insured. Must be proven at the time of the loss in Property and Casualty insurance contracts.InsuranceA formal social device for reducing risk by transferring the risks of several individual entities to an insurer. The insurer agrees, for a consideration, to assume the losses suffered by the insured. Transferring the financial impact of a loss from the insured to the insurance company.Insured (Named Insured vs Insured)An insured is anyone who may be covered by the insurance. The named insured is the person, persons or business actually named as the named insured in the policy declarations. A named insured is responsible for meeting the conditions of the policy. Some commercial policies use the term first named insured since there could be many named insureds. For example, a commercial cancellation notice would be sent to the first named insured instead of all the named insureds.Insurer (Insurance Company)An entity that pays for the financial losses of another due to sickness or accidents.Insuring Clause (Agreement)The clause in a policy that specifies in brief the contract's intent. States the terms under which the policy will pay.Law of Large NumbersThe law of large numbers says that the more examples used to develop any statistic, the more reliable the statistics will be.Legal ObjectIn order for a contract to be legal, it must be for legal purposes only. This is why insurance contracts do not cover intentional or criminal acts of the insured, why there must be insurable interest, and why stolen property cannot be insured.Liability Insurance (a.k.a. Casualty Insurance)The insurance that pays and renders service on behalf of an insured for loss arising out of his responsibility, or due to negligence, to others imposed by law or assumed by contract.MalpracticeA medical practitioner, a doctor or a dentist is liable for damages or injuries caused his his/her errors and omissions. Such liability for medical professions can be covered by malpractice insurance. Professional Liability Insurance.Market ValueA concept which does not usually apply to insurance settlements. Market value means the selling value of the property. The market value on real property would not be a good indicator of the insurable value for fire insurance. However, auto insurance must pay the market value of a car which is totaled or stolen.Maxi-Tail (ERP)Unlimited extended reporting allows for claims to be paid after expiration of a claims-made liability policy. Requires additional premium from the insured.Midi-TailAutomatic and free five-year extended reporting period allowing for the making of claims after expiration of a claims-made liability policy, but only applies to claims arising from occurrences which were reported no later than 60 days after the end of the policy. See Extended Reporting Period (ERP).Mini-TailAutomatic and free 60-day extended reporting period allowing for the making of claims after expiration of a claims-made liability policy. See Extended Reporting Period (ERP).MisrepresentationThe use of written or oral statements of the insured or insurance company misrepresenting the risks, terms, coverages, benefits, privileges, or estimated future dividends of any policy. This is known as a LIE.Moral HazardA condition of morals or habits that increases the probability of a loss from a peril. Several speeding tickets will be considered a poor moral risk for the insurance company. It also includes dishonest acts of an insured.Morale HazardAn attitude that increases the probability of loss from a peril. The attitude of "it's insured, so why worry?," is an example of a morale hazard.Mutual InsurerAn insurance company that has no capital stock, but is owned by the policy owners. Mutual companies sell participating policies because they share in the profits with the policy owners by paying dividends.Mysterious DisappearanceMeans that insured property was lost but there is no likelihood that the property was stolen. Mysterious Disappearance is NOT an insured peril.National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC)An association of state Insurance Commissioners, active in discussions of regulatory problems and in the formation and recommendations of uniform practices and legislation.NegligenceFailure to use that degree of care which and ordinary person of reasonable prudence would use under the given circumstances. Negligence may be constituted by acts of either omission or commission or both.Nonadmitted InsurerAn insurance company who does not have a certificate of authority to transact insurance business in a specific State. Often referred to as an "Unauthorized" company.NonrenewalTermination of insurance coverage at an expiration or anniversary date. This action may be taken by an insurance company or by an insured who rejects the renewal offer.Obligee (the one protected by the bond)Broadly, anyone in whose favor an obligation runs. This term is used most frequently in surety bonds, where it refers to the person, firm or corporation protected by the bond.OccurrenceAn accident, including continuous or repeated exposure to the same harmful conditions, which results in bodily injury or property damage, which is not expected, intended or foreseen by the insured.Occurrence CoverageA policy providing liability coverage for injury or loss that occurs during the policy period, regardless of when the claim is made. For example, a claim which is made in the current policy year could be charged against a prior policy period, or may not be covered, if it arises from an occurrence prior to the effective date.Offer and AcceptanceThe offer may be made by the applicant signing the application, paying the first premium and, if necessary, submitting to a physical examination. Policy issuance, as applied for, constitutes acceptance by the company.Package PolicyAny insurance policy including two or more lines or types of coverages in the same contract.Participating "Par" PoliciesMutual Insurance Companies "participate" with their profits by paying dividends (profits) to the policy owners.PerilThe cause of a possible loss; the event insured against.Personal Injury (PI)Injury other than bodily injury arising out of false arrest or detention, malicious prosecution, wrongful entry or eviction, libel or slander, or violation of a person's right to privacy.Personal Injury Protection (PIP)The formal name usually given to no-fault Automobile Insurance coverages. PIP includes benefits for medical expenses, loss of work income, essential services and funeral expenses. PIP is required to be offered in Washington.PremiumThe payment or consideration that the insured makes to the insurance company for insurance coverage.Principal (a.k.a. Obligor)A person or organization whose obligations are guaranteed by a bond. The one from whom the obligee is protected.Privacy Protection (Gramm Leach Bliley Act, GLBA)Regulates financial institutions such as banking, insurance, stocks, bonds, financial services and investing. Information that many consider private, such as bank balances, insurance transactions and account numbers, are often bought and sold by banks, insurance companies and other financial institutions. This law provides Privacy Protection against the sale of your private financial information.(Insurance) Producermeans a person required to be licensed under the laws of this state to sell, solicit or negotiate insurance. The term, insurance producer, does not include title insurance agents or surplus lines brokers.Products Liability InsuranceProvides protection against claims arising out of the use, handling or consumption of a product. The product does not have to be made or sold by the insured to be held liable.Professional Liability InsuranceLiability insurance to indemnify professionals, doctors, lawyers, architects, etc., for loss or expense resulting from claims on account of bodily injuries because of any malpractice, error, or mistake committed or alleged to have been committed by the insured in his profession. Usually a Claims-Made form.Proof of LossA formal statement made by the insured to the insurance company regarding a loss. The purpose of the proof of loss is to place before the company sufficient information concerning the loss to enable it to determine its liability under the policy or bond.Pro-Rata CancellationThe termination of an insurance contract or bond, with the premium charge being adjusted in proportion to the exact time the protection has been in force. No service fee may be charged for cancellation of the contract.Pro-Rata Liability ClauseProvides that losses will be paid in proportion that the amount of the policy bears to the entire amount of insurance on all policies covering the loss. This provides for insurance companies to appropriately share in the loss when more than one policy exists, yet prevents the insured from collecting in total from several insurance companies, thereby making a profit.Proximate CauseThe effective cause of loss or damage; an unbroken chain of cause and effect between the occurrence of an insured peril or a negligent act, and the resultant injury or damage to property.Punitive Damagesa form of punishment intended to serve as an example to others and to create disincentives that discourage certain behavior. Punitive damages are awarded in cases involving gross negligence or conduct which exposes the public to extreme hazards.RebatingReturning premium, giving a discount, or paying the insured's premium. In the State of Washington, it is illegal to rebate premiums.RepresentationsOn an application, facts that the applicant represents as true and accurate to the best of his or her knowledge and belief. In contrast to warranty (see Warranty)Retroactive DateDate on a claims made liability policy which triggers the beginning period of insurance coverage. A retroactive date is not required. If on is shown on the policy, any claim made during the policy period will not be covered if the loss occurred before the retroactive date.RiskA chance of loss; the person/thing to insure. Only pure risk is insurable.RobberyThe taking, either by force or by fear of force, of the personal property of another.Self-Insured RetentionIf an umbrella policy provides coverage for circumstances that are excluded by an underlying policy, the insured pays a selected retention limit, which acts like a deductible, and the insurance company pays the loss over that amount.Short RateThe term short rate refund in insurance and bonding is used to describe the charge required (a.k.a. service fee) when a contract is canceled by the named insured before the end of the policy period or term of the bond.Specific DamagesIf someone destroys your property or causes bodily injury which results in medical expenses, specific losses have occurred (the value of the property or the amount of the medical bills).Speculative RiskGain or a loss. Value of a home or stock going up or down in value is known as a speculative risk. This type of risk is NOT insurable. Only pure risk is insurable.Stock CompanyA company owned by stock holders. Profits or dividends are paid to the stock holders (NOT the policy owners).SubrogationThe legal process by which an insurance company seeks from a third party who may have caused the loss, recovery of the amount paid to the insured.Supplemental Extended Reporting PeriodAn optional maxi-tail or full-tail which extends for an unlimited period of time after expiration of a claims-made liability policy, and covers claims made after the policy period.SuretyThis is a term loosely used to describe the business of Bonds. Suretyship is an arrangement whereby one party becomes answerable to a third party for the acts or neglect of a second party. The party in a Suretyship arrangement who holds himself responsible to one person for the acts of another (customarily an insurance company) is the Surety.Surety BondA bond in which the surety agrees to answer to the obligee for the non-performance of the principal (also known as the obligor).Surplus LinesCoverage procured from an out of state insurance company because the coverage is unavailable in the state where the insured lives. This coverage must be purchased through a Surplus Lines Broker.Temporary AgentA person who is licensed to act as an agent for a brief period of time (no more than 180 days in Washington State) without taking a written examination. Temporary licenses are commonly granted to allow someone to continue the business of an agent (to legally represent that agent) who has died or becomes disabled.Temporary SubstituteA temporary substitute is any auto or trailer used by the insured in place of a covered vehicle or trailer which is out of use due to service, repair, breakdown, loss, or descruction.Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (TRIA)Requires insurance companies to offer terrorism insurance to their commercial policyholders. The TRIA directs the Secretary of Treasury to administer a program for sharing terrorism losses. The TRIA has expanded their definition of "terrorism" to be any act that is certified by the Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of State and the Attorney General of the United States to be an act of terrorism.TheftAny loss of property by stealing, including both robbery and burglary. Theft does not include employee dishonesty or mysterious disappearance (a disappearance of property that cannot be explained.)TwistingInducing or seeking to induce a policy owner, by misrepresentation, to terminate an existing policy in order to take a new policy.Umbrella Liability PolicyA liability policy designed to provide liability protection above and beyond that provided by standard liability contracts.UnderwritingProcess through which an insurer determines whether, and on what basis, an insurance application will be accepted.Unilateral ContractOne party is required to perform under the contract. The insurer cannot demand that the insured make the premium payments, but if the premiums are paid, the insurer is obligated to pay.WarrantyA statement made on an application for insurance that is warranted (guaranteed in the contract) to be true; that is, it is exact in every detail, as opposed to a representation. Warranties are expressed in the contract (in writing).Workers' CompensationBenefits paid workers for injury, disability or disease contracted in the course of their employment. Washington is compulsory and monopolistic state. This means that benefits must be provided for employees and it can only be purchased through the State's Department of Labor and Industries.