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Blanch- Period 1
Period 1 AP World History Vocab
Terms in this set (63)
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
I:Because of their military strength, they would help the rise of Muslim Empires
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule
I:cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
I:Pilgrimmage to Mecca by important rulers and travelers would end up promoting Islam
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon; center of trade for a long time until it was gradually moved North
I: Bc of its location, promoted trade, beauty
Large ships favored by Indian, Persian, and Arab sailors that could carry up to four hundred tons of cargo.- INDIAN OCEAN TRADE
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
"traditions" of the prophet Muhammad; added to the Qur'an, form the essential writings of Islam
A pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
First caliph of Islam after the death of Muhammad
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind; used in the Indian Ocean trade
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
A series of holy wars from 1096-1270 AD undertaken by European Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim rule.
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
The scientific study of population characteristics.
A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.
Village-based agricultural societies, usually organized by kinship groups, that functioned without a formal government apparatus.
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Constantinople, built by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian
Cyril and Methodius
Byzantine missionaries sent to convert eastern Europe and Balkans; responsible for creation of Slavic written script called Cyrillic.
A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from. The Scandinavians coined the term "Russia". It was greatly influenced by Byzantine
Mongols who conquered Russian cities during the 13th century; left Russian church and aristocracy intact. "People from Hell"
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
A rotational system for agriculture in which one field grows grain, one grows legumes, and one lies fallow. It gradually replaced two-field system in medieval Europe.
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative system based on sheriffs; established centralized monarchy.
(1215) a charter of liberties (freedoms) that King John "Lackland" of England was forced to sign; it made the king obey the same laws as the citizens of his kingdom
Hundred Years War
War between France and Britain, lasted 116 years, mostly a time of peace, but it was punctuated by times of brutal violence (1337 to 1453)
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to mount military assault to free the Holy Land from the Muslims.
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
A god, known as the Feathered Serpent, worshipped by the Toletcs (aka an Aztec group). Montezuma thought Cortez was this God.
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins.
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; nearly 1200 miles long.
Chinese ships, particularly from the 1400s, are often called these. It was a sturdy Chinese ship design and the largest of its kind were treasures ships that could carry a thousand tons of cargo.
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
Chinese practice of tightly wrapping girls' feet to keep them small, begun in the Tang dynasty; an emphasis on small size and delicacy was central to views of female beauty.
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.
a Buddhist sect that emphasizes enlightenment through meditation and stresses simplicity and discipline
Military leaders of the bakufu (military governments in Japan).
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following civil war and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
the 7th century "great change" reforms that established the centralized Japanese state.
Extensive adoption of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam.
The Tale of Genji
written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any languange; relates life history of prominent and amorous son of the Japanese emperor's son; evidence for mannered style of the Japanese society.
Ritual suicide or disembowelment in Japan; commonly known in West as hara-kiri; demonstrated courage and a means to restore family honor.
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Also known as Tamerlane; leader of Turkic nomads; beginning in 1360s from base at Samarkand, launched series of attacks in Persia, the Fertile Crescent, India, and southern Russia; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405.
White Lotus Society
Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule
I:buddhists against Mongol rule
A mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan.
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.
Capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan, 1162 - 1227.
(1371-1433?) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.
I: made China superpower of Indian Ocean
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
I:LESS POWER FOR CHURCH
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
I:NEW IDEAS, renaissance man, ...
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa.
I: Helped develop age of exploration
Vasco de Gama
A Portuguese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
I: Age of Exploration-> developed maps further, etc
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