Anat. & Phys. 3.1-3.3

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Terms in this set (62)
first law of thermodynamicsenergy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed or converted to one form or anothersecond law of thermodynamicsevery time energy is transferred from one form to another, some of that energy is converted as heatmetabolismthe combined chemical reactions in cells that use or release energychemical reactionoccurs whenever existing chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or brokenchemical equationsummary of molecular changes in a chemical reaction using symbols (reactants & products)reactantselements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction (left side)ProductsThe elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction (right side)decomposition reactiona chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler productsCatabolismAll decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones.synthesis reactionoccurs when two or more ions, atoms, compounds combine to form a larger single productAnabolismcollective term for all synthesis reactions in the bodyexchange reactionatoms, molecules, ions, or electrons are exchanged between two chemical structuresoxidation-reduction reactiona specific type of exchange reaction that involves the movement of electrons from one chemical structure to anotherOxidationloss of electrons (OIL)reductiongain of electrons (RIG)nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)accepts two electrons plus one proton to form NADH, important in ATP synthesisexergonic reactionA spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.endergonic reactionA non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.ATP cyclingthe continuous formation and breakdown of ATPirreversible reactioninvolves reactants converted to product at a rate that yields a net loss of reactants and a net gain in productreversible reactiona chemical reaction in which the products re-form the original reactantscarbonic acid reactionimportant reversible reaction: CO2 + H2O <--> H2CO3 <--> HCO3- + H+reaction ratemeasure of how quickly a chemical reaction takes place, determines amount of product formed per unit of timeactivation energy (Ea)energy required to break existing chemical bonds for the reaction to proceedCatalystssubstances that accelerate or promote chemical reactionsenzymesbiologically active catalysts that facilitate chemical changes in the human body by decreasing activation energyuncatalyzed reactionchemical reaction without an enzymecatalyzed reactionchemical reaction with an enzymeenzyme-substrate complexA temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecules active siteSpecificityshape of the active site permits only a single substrate, type of substrate, to bind to active site, and thus the enzyme is capable of catalyzing only one specific reactionlactaseenzyme embedded in the plasma membrane that breaks down lactoseCofactorsnonprotein structure that may be either inorganic or organic substance associated with particular enzyme or enzymatic reactionCoenzymesorganic cofactorsDehydrogenaseenzymes are a subcategory of enzymes within the oxidoreductase classKinasean enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specified molecule.pyruvate dehydrogenaseenzyme that transfers hydrogen, specifically from a pyruvate moleculeDNA polymerasecentral to the formation of the polymer DNA from deoxyribonucleotidesLactasedigest the disaccharide lactoseSaturationoccurs when so much substrate is present that all enzyme molecules are actively engaged in the chemical reaction, resulting in no further increase in reaction rateoptimal temperatureThe temperature at which the rate of enzymatic activity will be at its peak (about 40 degrees C)Optimal pHspecific pH where enzymes work the BEST (6-8 in humans)Inhibitorssubstances that bind to an enzyme and turn it off, thus preventing it from catalyzing the reactioncompetetive inhibitorresembles the substrate and binds to active site of the enzymeNoncompetetive inhibitorinhibitors that do not enter the active site; binds to enzyme and changes its shape and functionallosteric siteA non-active site on the enzyme body, where a non-substrate compound binds. This may result in conformational changes at the active site.allosteric inhibitorbinds to allosteric site and reduces enzyme activitymetabolic pathwayA series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds.multienzyme complexa group of enzymes, each of which catalyzes one reaction, that are physically joined to each other through non covalent bondsPhosphorylationthe addition of a phosphate group to a moleculedephosphorylationremoval of a phosphate group from a moleculePhosphorlyase kinaseenzymes that add phosphatePhosphataseenzymes that remove phosphate