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the passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring


Each different form of a characteristic, such as a stem height or seed color, is called


the scientific study of heredity


when a new organism begins to form when and egg and sperm join


an organism that has the same alleles


the factors that control a trait


the different forms of a gene

dominant allele

the trait always shows up when the allele is present

recessive allele

the trait is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present


an organism that has two different alleles for a trait (Rr)

dominant allele (example)


recessive allele (example)



the number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur

punnet square

a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross


an organism's physical appearance, or visible traits


an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations


an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait


an organism that has two different alleles for a trait


the alleles are neither dominate nor recessive

Chromosome theory of inheritance

genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes


the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells, sperm and egg

before meiosis

every chromosome in the parent cell is copied

end of meiosis

four sex cells are produced. each has only half the number of chromosomes that the parent cell had at the beginning of meisos. each cell has only one chromosome from each original pair


these are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string

DNA ladder

guanine, cytosine, thymine, adenine

RNA ladder

guanine, cytosine, uracil, adenine

during protein synthesis

cell uses information from a gene on a chromosome to produce a specific protein

nitrogen bases

forms a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced

Gregor Mendel

he figured out that if you cross a tall pea plant and a short plant, it will not be medium, the dominant gene will take over

messenger RNA

copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleas, and carries the message to the ribosome in the cytoplasm

transfer RNA

carries amino acids to the ribosome and adds them to the growing protein

protein synthesis part 1

DNA molecule unzips.

protein synthesis part 2

messenger RNA leaves the nucleus, enters the cytoplasm, and attatches to the ribosome

protein synthesis part 3

transfer RNA attatches to messenger RNA, protein starts to form

protein synthesis part 4

an amino acid is added to the protein chain


any change in a gene or chromosome. they can cause a cell to produce an incorrect protein


alleles are different forms of


the likelihood that a particular event will occur is called

five chromosomes

If the body cells of an organism have 10 chromosomes, then the sex cells produced during meiosis would have

amino acids, ribosome

during protein synthesis, transfer RNA carries _____ to the ________


a section of DNA has the base sequence GCTTAA. the corresponding messenger RNA base sequence will be

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