Honors Biology - Chapter 20

STUDY
PLAY
annual
lives and reproduces within 1 year
biennial
lives 2 years and reproduces in 2nd year
perennial
lives and reproduces many years
seed coat
coating that protects embryo
cotyledon
provides nutrients to embryo
buds
undeveloped shoots
leaf
main site of photosynthesis
petiole
connects leaf to stem
meristem
cells that generate new cells that will later differentiate
primary growth
vertical growth
secondary growth
growth in width
apical meristem
meristem found in tips of roots and shoots
vascular cambium
make new xylem and phloem
cork cambium
makes new cork, which becomes part of bark
pollination and double fertilization
Pollen is carried from anther to stigma of a flower of same species. A pollen tube grows toward the ovary through the style. When the pollen reaches to ovary it releases two sperm: one fertilizes the egg to from zygote, the other fertilizes the large central cell to form the endosperm.
label flower
http://urbanext.illinois.edu/gpe/images/flower12.gif
petal
attracts pollinators
sepal
protects bud
receptacle
holds flower
pistil
female part of flower
stigma
capture pollen
style
transports sperm to egg
ovary
protects ovules and becomes fruit
ovule
egg
stamen
male part of flower
anther
produces pollen
filament
holds up anther
vegetative reproduction
asexual reproduction in plants
-offspring are clones
-drop stems or other shoots that establish new roots and become clones
-send out shoots from the base of their trunks that go underground and create a new clone
seed dispersal
-wind: need many seeds, can be distributed long distances
-animal: food for animal or can travel on animal
-water: is carried by water, ex. coconut
germination
embryo in seed begins to grow again and develop into a plant
environmental conditions cue germination
-usually warm, moist soil
-some only germinate after going through a cold place
-some require the heat of a fire
function of roots
anchor a plant and absorb minerals and water
-fibrous root
-tap root
function of shoots
transport water & nutrients from the roots to the leaves and food from the leaves to the roots
3 different tissue types
1. Dermal tissue: outer covering
2. Vascular tissue: transports substances
3. Ground tissue: fills spaces between dermal and vascular tissue