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lives and reproduces within 1 year


lives 2 years and reproduces in 2nd year


lives and reproduces many years

seed coat

coating that protects embryo


provides nutrients to embryo


undeveloped shoots


main site of photosynthesis


connects leaf to stem


cells that generate new cells that will later differentiate

primary growth

vertical growth

secondary growth

growth in width

apical meristem

meristem found in tips of roots and shoots

vascular cambium

make new xylem and phloem

cork cambium

makes new cork, which becomes part of bark

pollination and double fertilization

Pollen is carried from anther to stigma of a flower of same species. A pollen tube grows toward the ovary through the style. When the pollen reaches to ovary it releases two sperm: one fertilizes the egg to from zygote, the other fertilizes the large central cell to form the endosperm.

label flower


attracts pollinators


protects bud


holds flower


female part of flower


capture pollen


transports sperm to egg


protects ovules and becomes fruit


male part of flower


produces pollen


holds up anther

vegetative reproduction

asexual reproduction in plants
-offspring are clones
-drop stems or other shoots that establish new roots and become clones
-send out shoots from the base of their trunks that go underground and create a new clone

seed dispersal

-wind: need many seeds, can be distributed long distances
-animal: food for animal or can travel on animal
-water: is carried by water, ex. coconut


embryo in seed begins to grow again and develop into a plant
environmental conditions cue germination
-usually warm, moist soil
-some only germinate after going through a cold place
-some require the heat of a fire

function of roots

anchor a plant and absorb minerals and water
-fibrous root
-tap root

function of shoots

transport water & nutrients from the roots to the leaves and food from the leaves to the roots

3 different tissue types

1. Dermal tissue: outer covering
2. Vascular tissue: transports substances
3. Ground tissue: fills spaces between dermal and vascular tissue

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