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Collecting data based on observation is an example of __________; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of __________ reasoning
discovery science; inductive
Which of the following best describes an emergent property?
the whole is different than the sum of its parts
The correct sequence of biological classification from most inclusive to least inclusive is:
domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
When blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin, and as a result blood glucose level declines. When blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon, and as a result blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of blood glucose level is the result of
All of the following statements are part of Charles Darwin's concept of natural selection except
Characteristics of organisms are inherited as genes on chromosomes
Which of these individuals is most likely to be successful in an evolutionary sense?
an organism that dies after 5 days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
T or F. Science requires that hypothesis be testable and falsifiable and that observations be repeatable
Which of the following statements about evolution is true?
evolution is a genetic change in a population over time
Which statement about natural selection is most correct?
Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring, and thus contribute more to the next generation's gene pool, than do poorly adapted individuals
Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
A and C only
Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails, as do fish, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are
B and C only
Which of these is the smallest unit upon which natural selection directly acts?
an individual's phenotype
Which of these is the smallest unit that natural selection can change?
a population's gene frequency
When we say that an individual organism has a greater fitness than another individual, we specifically mean that the organism
leaves more viable offspring than others of its species
Which describes brightly colored peacocks mating more frequently than drab peacocks?
Most Swiss starlings produce four to five eggs in each clutch. Those producing fewer or more than this have reduced fitness. Which of the following terms best describes this?
Which of the following is a properly written binomial for the bluegill sunfish? (Note: the information in parentheses desscribes the preceding words)
Lepomis macrochirus (in italics)
Male satin bowerbirds adorn structures that they build, called "bowers," with parrot feathers, flowers, and other bizarre ornaments in order to attract females. Females inspect the bowers and, if suitably impressed, allow males to mate with them. The evolution of this male behavior is due to
A biologist discovers two populations of wolf spiders whose members appear identical. Members of one population are found in the leaf litter deep within the woods. Members of the other population are found in the grass at the edge of the woods. The biologist decides to designate the members of the two populations as two separate species. Which species concept is this biologist most closely utilizing?
You are confronted with a box of preserved grasshoppers of various species that are new to science and have not been described. Your assignment is to separate them into species. There is no accompanying information as to where or when they were collected. Which species concept will you have to use?
Two species of frogs belonging to the same genus occasionally mate, but the offspring fail to develop and hatch. What is the mechanism for keeping the two frog species separate?
the postzygotic barrier called hybrid inviability
Reproductive isolation may cause new species to form. Which of the following is not an example of reproductive isolation?
a large dominant male wolf that prohibits other wolves in his pack to mate
Phylogenetic hypotheses (such as those represented by phylogenetic trees) are strongest when
they are supported by more than one kind of evidence, such as when fossil evidence corroborates molecular evidence
Which of these taxa contains species that produce potent toxins that can cause extensive fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and poison humans?
A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?
Arthropods invaded land about 100 million years before vertebrates did so. This most clearly implies that
arthropods have had more time to co-evolve with land plants than have vertebrates
Cephalization is most closely associated with which of the following?
concentration of sensory structures at the anterior end
The sexual cycle of Plasmodium (underlined) takes place in ____________, while the asexual cycle takes place in ____________________. What choices best fill in hte blanks?
What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates
have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not
An animal that swims rapidly in search of prey that it captures using visual senses concentrated at its anterior end is likely to be
bilaterally symmetrical and cephalized
Natural selection changes allele frequencies because some ________________ survive and reproduce more successfully than others
Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is that only animals derive their nutrition
by ingesting it
Darwin analogized the effects of evolution as the above-ground portion of a many-branched tree, with extant species being the tips of the twigs. The common ancestor of two species is most analogous to which anatomical tree part?
a node where two twigs diverge
Beetle pollinators of a particular plant are attracted to its flowers' bright orange color. The beetles not only pollinate the flowers, but they mate while inside of the flowers. A mutant version of the plant with red flowers becomes more common with the passage of time. A particular variant of the beetle prefers the red flowers to the orange flowers. Over time, these two beetle variants diverge from each other to such an extent that interbreeding is no longer possible. What kind of speciation has occurred in this example, and what has driven it?
sympatric speciation, habitat differentiation
A proficient engineer can easily design skeletal structures that are more functional than those currently found in the forelimbs of such diverse mammals as horses, whales, and bats. That the actual forelimbs of these mammals do not seem to be optimally arranged is because
natural selection is generally limited to modifying structures that were present in previous generations and in previous species
Which definition of evolution would have been most foreign to Charles Darwin during his lifetime?
change in gene frequency in gene pools
DNA sequences in many human genes are very similar to the sequences of corresponding genes in chimpanzees. The most likely explanation for this result is that
humans and chimpanzees share a relatively recent common ancestor
You are trying to identify an organism. It is an animal, but it does not have nerve or muscle tissue. It is neither diploblastic nor triploblastic. It is probably a
A radially symmetrical animal that has two embryonic tissue layers probably belongs to which phylum?
What would be the most effective method of reducing the incidence of blood flukes in a human population?
Reduce the freshwater snail population
Some species of which of the following annelid classes release an anticoagulant that is of medical significance?
The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?
A terrestrial animal species is discovered with the following larval characteristics: exoskeleton, system of tubes for gas exchange, and modified segmentation. A knowledgeable zoologist should predict that its adults would also feature
an open circulatory system
Which of the following can have long, movable spines?
class Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars)
A farm pond, usually dry during winter, has plenty of water and aquatic pond life during the summer. One summer, Sarah returns to the family farm from college. Observing the pond, she is fascinated by some six-legged organisms that can crawl about on submerged surfaces or, when disturbed, seemingly "jet" through the water. Watching further, she is able to conclude that the "mystery organisms" are ambush predators, and their prey includes everything from insects to small fish and tadpoles.If the pond organisms are larvae, rather than adults, Sarah should expect them to have all of the following structures, except
In a tide pool, a student encounters an organism with a hard outer covering that contains much calcium carbonate, an open circulatory system, and gills. The organism could potentially be a crab, a shrimp, a barnacle, or a bivalve. Which structure below would allow for the most certain identification?
An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a salt-water aquarium. Knowing that salt-water aquaria can be quite a hassle, the teacher proceeded stepwise. First, the teacher conditioned the water. Next, the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates, including a polychaete, a siliceous sponge, several bivalves, a shrimp, several sea anemones of different types, a colonial hydra, a few coral species, an ectoproct, a sea star, and several gastropod varieties. Lastly, some vertebrates-a parrotfish and a clownfish-were added. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish.The bivalves started to die one by one; only the undamaged shells remained. To keep the remaining bilvalves alive, the teacher would have had to remove the
Terry catches a ray-finned fish from the ocean and notices that, attached to its flank, there is an equally long, snakelike organism. The attached organism has no external segmentation, no scales, a round mouth surrounded by a sucker and two small eyes. Terry thinks it might be a marine leech, a hagfish, or a lamprey.
Which feature excludes it from possibly being a leech?
its lack of external segmentation
While on an intersession course in tropical ecology, Kris pulls a large, snakelike organism from a burrow (the class was granted a collecting permit). The 1-m-long organism has smooth skin, which appears to be segmented. It has two tiny eyes that are hard to see because they seem to be covered by skin. Kris brings it back to the lab at the field station, where it is a source of puzzlement to the class. Kris says that it is a giant oligochaete worm; Shaun suggests it is a legless amphibian; Kelly proposes it belongs to a snake species that is purely fossorial (lives in a burrow).
Which characteristic should permit the class to conclude that it is probably not a snake?
the absence of scales on its surface
Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
It allows incubation of eggs in a terrestrial environment
An advantage of asexual reproduction is that
asexual reproduction enables the population to rapidly colonize habitats that are favorable to that population
Genetic mutations in asexually reproducing organisms lead to more evolutionary change than do genetic mutations in sexually reproducing ones because
asexually reproducing organisms, but not sexually reproducing organisms, pass all mutations to their offspring
For water fleas of the genus Daphnia, switching from a pattern of asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction coincides with
periods of temperature or food stresses
Like many other fishes, bluehead wrasses utilize harem mating as they reproduce sexually, but unlike most fish
large females morph into reproductively competent males
Cnidocytes are stinging cells that contain _____________ that are used to subdue and capture prey. Fill in the blank above
Birds and mammals are distinct from other Vertebrates due to which characteristic that they share with each other?
Unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
have some embryonic development outside the mother's uterus
Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
Which of the following is descriptive of protostomes?
spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
In the territorial behavior of the stickleback fish, the red belly of one male elicits attacks from another male by functioning as
a sign stimulus
You turn on a light and observe cockroaches scurrying to dark hiding places. What have you observed?
A type of bird similar to a chickadee learns to peck through the cardboard tops of milk bottles left on doorsteps and drink the cream from the top. What term best applies to this behavior?
Male insects attempt to mate with orchids but eventually stop responding to them. What term best applies to this behavior?
Some dogs love attention, and Frodo the beagle learns that if he barks, he gets attention. Which of the following might you use to describe this behavior?
The dog's behavior is a result of operant conditioning
Fred and Joe, two unrelated, mature male gorillas, encounter one another. Fred is courting a female. Fred grunts as Joe comes near. As Joe continues to advance, Fred begins drumming (pounding his chest) and bares his teeth. Joe then rolls on the ground on his back, gets up, and quickly leaves. This behavioral pattern is repeated several times during the mating season. Choose the most specific behavior described by this example.
Which scientist devised a rule that predicts when natural selection should favor altruism?
In Belding's ground squirrels, it is mostly the females that behave altruistically by sounding alarm calls. What is the likely reason for this distinction?
Females settle in the area in which they were born, so the calling females are warning kin
Which of the following statements about ecology is incorrect?
Ecology is a discipline that is independent from natural selection and evolutionary history
Landscape ecology is best described as the study of
the factors controlling the exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms among ecosystem patches
Experts in deer ecology generally agree that population sizes of deer that live in temperate climates are limited by winter snow. The deer congregate in "yarding" areas under evergreen trees because venturing out to feed in winter is energetically too expensive when snowfall depths accumulate to above 40 cm. Deer often stay yarded until the spring thaw. Snow depth over 40 inches for more than 60 days results in high mortality due to starvation.
This observation best illustrates which of the following principles about factors that limit distribution of organisms?
Environmental factors are limiting not only in amount but also in longevity
Long-term studies of Belding's ground squirrels show that immigrants move nearly 2 km from where they are born and make up 1 to 8% of the males and 0.7 to 6% of the females in other populations. On an evolutionary scale, why is this significant?
These immigrants provide a source of genetic diversity for the other populations
The three basic variables that make up the life history of an organism are
age when reproduction begins, how often reproduction occurs, and how many offspring are produced per reproductive episode
As N approaches K for a certain population, which of the following is predicted by the logistic equation?
The growth rate will approach zero
Which of the following describes having more than one reproductive episode during a lifetime?
Two barnacles, Balanus and Chthamalus, can both survive on the lower rocks just above the low-tide line on the Scottish coast, but only Balanus actually does so, with Chthamalus adopting a higher zone. Which of the following best accounts for this niche separation?
The tendency for two similar species to differ from one another more markedly in areas where they occur together is known as
Which of the following is an example of Batesian mimicry?
a non-venomous snake that looks like a venomous snake
In a tide pool, 15 species of invertebrates were reduced to eight after one species was removed. The species removed was likely a(n)
Subtraction of which of the following will convert gross primary productivity into net primary productivity?
the energy used by autotrophs in respiration
The amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period is known as which of the following?
A secondary consumer, such as a fox, receives what percent of the energy fixed by primary producers in a typical field ecosystem?
Multicellular organisms must keep their cells awash in an "internal pond" because
cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases, and wastes
In the communication link between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle
the motor neuron is considered the presynaptic cell and the skeletal muscle is the postsynaptic cell
Suppose you are studying the nitrogen cycling in a pond ecosystem over the course of a year. While you are collecting data, a flock of 100 Canada geese lands and spends the night during a fall migration. What could you do to eliminate error in your study as a result of this event?
Find out how much nitrogen is consumed and eliminated by a Canada goose over about a 12-hour period and multiply this number by 100; enter this +/-value into the nitrogen budget of the ecosystem
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