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MGT 431 Test 3 - Chapter 10
The Selection Interview
Terms in this set (72)
The _____ is the most used tool ever and is popular across cultures, especially _____ cutlure
selection interview; European
they are common and have VERY high face validity (because people like to talk about themselves); interviews are low-cost; considered to be legal; Social Exchange
Social Exchange during the interview process:
we start to develop a relationship between current employees and future employees during the interview process; interviews should be approaches as a two-way street: soliciting information AND conveying information
Common Problems with the Traditional Interview:
are often unstructured (aka every applicant gets different questions) which is a BAD way to approach the process; expectancy effect; 1st impression bias - when managers let initial impressions influence the entire interview; stereotype matching - managers matching applicants to their "ideal applicant"
Why is the selection interview so commonly and frequently used?
candidates like them; low cost; used by other companies; practical; considered to be legal
Common Problems with the "Traditional" Interview:
variety of interviewer biases (1st Impressions, expectancy effect, stereotype matching); lack of structure; disagreement on the desirability of interview responses; little formal interviewer training; 50% have subjective (or no) scoring system ; interview conducted and scored by one person
Making interviews more novel/exciting can hurt their _____
Make sure interview questions are....
job-related, specific, and do NOT illicit a response that could lead to problematic information being given (because they could cause candidates to reveal things like age, religion, marital status, etc. that could lead to discrimination)
Prohibited Interview Questions:
age; marital status/kids; religion; political affiliation; medical history; personal habits
Selection interviews should be mostly STRUCTURED and....
questions should be demonstrably job related; ask all applicants the same precise questions; answers should be rated using anchored rating scales; define good, average, poor answers; multiple interviewers should independently evaluate the candidate's answers; train interviewers
Why do some organizations still prefer unstructured interviews?
it is flexible; applicants have more discretion in answering questions, enabling them to better convey their skills and abilities AND the chance to learn more about the job, work group, manager and organization; interviewers have the flexibility to get to know the person, the opportunity to win the applicant over, and can sometimes be over confident in ability
Early research on unstructured interview concluded that it lacked _____ and _____
But 25 years of research of structured interview shows predictive validity - validity coefficient for the structured interview is _____ and the unstructured interview better at _____
How do we combine structured and unstructured approaches?
by letting managers choose the type of question based on a competency (which they cannot chose themselves)
The core information you are getting should be the _____ across all applicants
to assess applicant's general characteristics
Screening is trying to get at _____ skills the applicant MUST have (like drivers license)
to assess specific job-related WRCs
To develop questions for screening:
identify fundamental WRCs applicant must possess; identify the most important of these; use a modified critical-incidents technique to identify questions
The higher level job position, the LESS _____ the interview
Outcomes of interviews:
an opportunity to select the best candidate; an opportunity to recruit highly qualified candidates and sell them on the organization; enables applicant to assess fit with the organization and job, ask about procedure; efficient and practical method for measuring an applicant WRCs; permits an early decision (screening out) or later decision regarding applicant
Actual interview process can take up to _____
The interviewer's description of the job is sometimes recalled differently by the two, so use a....
written job description
Use an interview that is a mix of selection and recruiting because it....
increases the applicant's willingness to accept an offer; allows the employer to assess the candidate's qualifications
The interview is often the only one source the applicant has to....
assess the organization
Recruiters signal the organization's reputation:
those who are skilled and trained had a significant impact on the candidate's attitudes toward the job; demographic characteristics had no impact
Interviewers' ratings may be affected by:
physical attractiveness & professional demeanor; use of impression management behavior; verbal and nonverbal behavior of the applicant
3 types of common interview biases:
anchoring, illusory correlations, overconfidence bias
answering one question awesome and the next one is bad, but the manager gives them the benefit of the doubt as a result (could happen the other way around though!)
making assumptions based on technical knowledge and personal appearance (so seeing things that aren't really there)
people that think they are naturally great at evaluating candidates
Schedule of a Typical Interview: Step 1 - Opening
introduction / scheduling; establish rapport - making a connection with the candidate (e.g. where they live, their interests, where they went to school, etc.)
Schedule of a Typical Interview: Step 2 - Body
job knowledge; informational; work history; experience; situational judgment; education; maintain rapport
Schedule of a Typical Interview: Step 3 - Closing
do a job analysis using the critical-incidents technique; review the incidents for each behavioral dimension, select a small number of the most appropriate, and use these to write interview questions; score applicants' responses using a five-point scale
Why do we use behavior anchors?
in order to get a standard answer across applicants
Behavioral questions are better to ask because...
the best predictor of future performance is PAST performance; they allow applicants to discuss what they have learned; they assess Behavioral Consistency (are you adaptable?)
The Behavior Description Interview Process:
1) do a job analysis using the critical-incidents technique; 2) review the incidents for each behavioral dimension, select a small number of the most appropriate, and use these to write interview questions; 3) create follow-up questions for each question; 4) score applicants' responses separately using a five-point scale
It is recommended that managers use both situational and behavioral in _____
If you are designing a good interview protocol, you do not have much time to ask too many questions. So, the questions must not be hugely long...just _____
Evaluating Interviews as Predictors - Behavior description:
past-oriented regarding prior work experience; answers related accumulated work experience & personality; higher predictive validity for professional jobs higher in complexity
Evaluating Interviews as Predictors - Situational interviews:
future-oriented asking applicants what they would do; even when these are designed to assess the same construct, they reflect different measures; answers correlated with job knowledge, cognitive ability; most research on these concerns entry-level, clerical and hourly jobs; applicants have no work experience
The "S.T.A.R." technique:
Situation; Task: Action: Results
The "S.T.A.R." technique is used to answer _____ questions
The "S.T.A.R." technique wants candidates to describe the situation....
as it occurred
In order to respond well to interview questions....
use the S.T.A.R technique; be specific; describe how you ACTUALLY behaved; if you later decided you should have behaved differently, then explain (to show that you learned something)
Other focuses of interviews (besides WRCs):
building rapport; relaying expectations for interview; answering applicant's questions
Pros & Cons of Technology and Global Trends:
Pro: able to reach a wider audience; Con: more people to evaluate, issues with equity, etc. (there are a LOT of problems with this option)
Contamination is _____ for Zoom-based interviews than in-person interviews
Increasing use of Zoom and video-conferencing, interviews at a distance:
preliminary research suggests comparable predictive validities from these; future research on impact of impression management behaviors; cultural differences may influence administration and design of the interview; reactions to structured interviews differ - may be illegal in some countries
Reliability in Interviews:
focused on inter-rater reliability here; one of the best ways to do this is to have a panel interview
_____ interviews are more reliable than unstructured interviews
The reliability of unstructured interviews can be improved by....
increasing the number of interviews given to a job candidate
Why is increasing the number of interviews given to a job candidate important?
increases the amount of information on which a hiring recommendation can be based; should correct for idiosyncratic biases of individual interviewers; three or four interviews create same level of validity; they have limited instances of adverse impact
Unstructured interviews oftentimes take place during meals, so _____ often happens in these instances
Discrimination might be charged if:
decisions of the selection interview led to disparate treatment or disparate impact; and; the interview could not be defended regarding job-relatedness
Employers should avoid asking questions relating to:
race, color, religion, sex, national origin, marital status, sexual orientation, age, handicap or disability, and status as a Vietnam-era or disabled veteran
Research Findings on Discrimination:
structured interviews help reduce influence of race, sex, age, etc. on outcomes; small and inconsistent effect on result if interview & applicant of same race, gender; applicant disclosure of non-obvious disability increases likelihood of hiring; Black and Hispanic candidates received evaluations about ¼ of a standard deviation lower, on average
Interviewers & applicants bring their own expectations:
influence all three stages of the interview; in pre-interview stage, significant impact on impressions, which influences interviewer evaluation of candidates; interviewers seek out and recall (distort?) information supporting their pre-interview impressions
Interviewer's access to applicant information before the interview skews results:
lab experiment: hypothetical job candidates posting negative work-related activity much less likely to be re-recommended by recruiter
Candidate's who thought the interviewer was likely to extend an offer after first few minutes were less _____ and less effectively managed their _____ during rest of interview
Interviewer's evaluation could affected by:
physical attractiveness; handshake; candidate's personality; whether candidate has participated in a coaching program prior to the interview
The role of Social Interaction during an interview:
candidate has incentive to manage image; attitudinal similarity raises interviewer ratings; personable, competent, informative recruiters increase applicant's attraction to job or firm; interviewer ratings of candidate higher when interview is longer and interviewer talks more; interviewer ratings more accurate when they had both a high level of verbal cues and nonverbal cues
Decision makers use a two-stage process:
1) interviewer tries to reduce choices by screening out unsuitable candidates (categorize) and then 2) interviewer evaluates choices more rigorously, trying to choose the "best" candidate (characterization)
In interviews, initial information carries considerable weight as....
the first impression establishes an anchor for interviewer that filters all subsequent evaluations of the applicant
Interviewers often give more weight to _____ information than to positive information
Interviewers may fail to recall about _____ of interview
It is recommended to limit the use of _____ data, as it introduces contamination
__________ have reduced some of the common rater errors: contrast, halo, leniency and central tendency
Training enhances the _____ of interviewer judgments
Structured interviews can be organized into _____, including questions by the applicant
Critical interviewer skills:
accurately receiving information; avoiding errors in evaluating information received; regulating behavior in delivering questions
Components of an Interviewer Training Program:
identify specific behavioral objectives; have interviewer trainees demonstrate and review their skills (use of video); evaluate trainees and offer suggestions for change; have interviewers attend training sessions on a regular basis to acquire, refresh, and maintain interviewer skills
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