Exam 2 Pharmacology Nursing and Lab Values
Terms in this set (68)
Anticoagulant. Venous Thrombosis, Pulmonary Embolism (PE), AF, Valve Surgery. Watch for bleeding! INR before durring and after. Antidote- Vitamin K
Anti Coagulant, Bleeding, PTT (1.5-2.5) *no signs of bleeding. Protamine Sulfate Antidote.
Hypertension, angina pectoris, prevention of MI, decrease mortality after MI. Bradycardia, hypotension. B/P before, after, and during. Pulse before, after. Meds in this class end in OLOL.
Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, Isordil)
anti-anginals, produces vasodilation to coronary arteries, decrease preload and afterload, treats angina. monitor hypotension, pain, B/P priority.
anti-arrhythmic (cardiac glycoside), Increase force of myocardial contraction, slows rate. For CHF, Bradycardia, fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Check Apical pulse, serum drug level, electrolyte K, weight.
Diuretic, antihypertensive, treatment of edema. Lowers blood pressure. Monitor B/P, Pulse, I&O, Weight, Edema. Lab: K, Blood Glucose, BUN, Serum Creatinine, Uric Acid. Dizzy, hypokalemia.
Bronchodilator. To control or prevent reversible airway obstruction from asthma, or COPD. Asses lung sounds, pulse, and B/P, note sputum, observe paradoxical bronchospasms. Nervousness, tremor, chest pain.
Bronchodilators, anticholinergics relaxing smooth muscle, drys up secretions congestion, COPD, Bronchitis, emphysema reduce bronchospasms
Anti-inflammatory, corticosteroid. of inflammation and pruritis associated with various allergic/immunologic skin problems.
Anti-inflammatory, corticosteroid. Maintenance treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy.
stimulant laxatives, stool softeners Treatment of constipation associated with dry, hard stools and decreased intestinal motility.
Prevention of opioid-induced constipation. stimulates peristalsis, and some retain water to soften.
Bronchodilator and anticholinergic. Long-term maintenance treatment of bronchospasm due to COPD. Reducing exacerbations in patients with COPD.
bronchodilators.Management of reversible airway disease due to asthma or COPD. May cause hypokalemia and hypoglycemia. lowering in serum potassium.
Salmeterol (Serevent Diskus)
bronchodilator, adrenergic.As concomitant therapy for the treatment of asthma and the prevention of bronchospasm in patients taking but inadequately controlled on a long-term asthma-control medication. Check glucose and Potassium.
Pen-v:anti-infectives, anaphylaxis, Bind to bacterial cell wall, resulting in cell death. also used in lyme patients, also for infections strep syphilis phnamonia.. Oral use
Pen G- Intravenous
Penicillin Resistant Penicillins
Methicillin-Penicillinase resistant penicillins are anti-infectives , which are not inactivated by the penicillinase enzyme. Some bacteria produce the enzyme penicillinase that destroys the beta-lactam ring of the antibiotic, making the penicillin ineffective
Oxacillin: More active against staphylococcus.
Amoxicilin:anti-infectives antiulcer agents. could cause c-diff. Bactericidal action; spectrum is broader than penicillins. Used for ulceration, skin problems. check for bowel problems or anyphylaxis. Prevents synthasis of bacterial walls
Ampicillin: similar yet amino acids are sent to invade formed gram - bacterial membranes. less common
Extended-spectrum penicillin is a group of antibiotics that has the widest antibacterial spectrum of all penicillins. It is also called antipseudomonal penicillins.
Ticarcillin Penicillins are sometimes combined with other ingredients called beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the penicillin from bacterial enzymes that may destroy it before it can do its work.
Penicillins are medicines that kill bacteria or prevent their growth. monitor rinal function and WBC count
anti-infective preventing the growth and spread of bacteria.photosensitivity
super infection hepatotoxicity (√liver studies) Contraindicated for
children <8y and pregnancy Take on empty stomach (no
milk/antacids) works on Gram - & +
Cephalosporins 1st Generation
First generation cephalosporins are effective in fighting gram-positive bacteria such as strains of staphylococcus and streptococcus. Among first generation cephalosporin antibiotics are Keflin, and Keflex.
Cephalosporins 2nd Generation
In addition to gram+ first generation drugs, second generation cephalosporins expand coverage to gram- bacteria such as enterobacter, pseudomonas and salmonella. Second generation drugs vary in coverage, and testing is often required to determine the appropriate agent to prescribe. the drugs in this category include, Ceclor, Mefoxin
Cephalosporins 3rd Generation
Third generation cephalosporins extend coverage of gram-negative organisms. These drugs have the ability to penetrate the central nervous system to treat infections that affect the neurological system. Included are the drugs, Rocephin, and Primaxin.
Aminoglycosides are a group of bactericidal antibiotics, which act by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. Their use is restricted because of potential side effects, as they can cause ear and kidney damage. nephrotoxicity ototoxicity
anti-infectives Vancomycin is used to treat colitis (inflammation of the intestine caused by certain bacteria) that may occur after antibiotic treatment. It works by killling bacteria in the intestines. Vancomycin will not kill bacteria or treat infections in any other part of the body when taken by mouth.
prevent the growth of bacteria Gram - Gram +. UTI OM
prostatitis. renal calculi GI: N/V nephrotoxicity (FF; watch I&O) Super infection photosensitivity SJS Give on empty
stomach (unless GI symptoms)
i.e. Cipro,Floxin, Levaquin,Tequin Gram - E. coli UTI STDs. CNS toxicity (visual) GI: nausea nephrotoxicity (FF; watch I&O)photosensitivity Give on empty stomach (unless GI symptoms)urine may be brown/orange
Na in the loop of
Henle.Watch for S/S of
Foods ↑ K+
TX of renal
CHF Watch for S/S of
Foods ↑ K+
anticoagulants, antithrombotics prevention of DVT VTE of PE. Bleeding precautions CBC platelet count.
Cephalosporins are a group of antibiotics related to penicillin in structure and the way they fight infection. They are considered "broad-range" antibiotics and cover a wider range of infections than penicillin. Most cephalosporins act as bactericides. There are currently four generations of cephalosporins recognized in the United States.
Uric Acid Male
Uric Acid Female
o2 sat %
RBC count Male
RBC count Female
anti-inflammatories (steroidal) corticosteroids. Maintenance and prophylactic treatment of asthma. Potent, locally acting anti-inflammatory and immune modifier. Decreases frequency and severity of asthma attacks.
(Albuterol and Ipratropium)
a synthetic corticosteroid used as the propionate salt to treat inflammation in certain dermatoses, allergic rhinitis and other inflammatory nasal conditions, nasal polyps, and asthma.