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AP Human Geography: Unit 1 terms
Unit One: A Cultural Landscape Cultural Attributes: p20 Density: p33 Diffusion: p37-39 Dispersion/Concentration: p33-34 Distribution: p33 Environmental determinism: p25 Location: p14 Pattern: p34 Physical Attributes Possibilism: p25 Regions: p21-22
Terms in this set (86)
an area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation and use of natural resources [Changing attribute of a place]
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. This is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings. [Changing attribute of a place]
A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation. (defined by Carl Sauer as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group) [Cultural Attributes]
the frequency with which something occurs in space (can be measures of people, houses, cars, volcanoes, or anything, with any method of measurement)
Total number of objects in an area, commonly used to compare distribution of population in different countries. (# people / sq. kilometer / mile) [no correlation of high density & large population or high density to poverty]
number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture. Could mean a country has difficulty growing enough food.
number of farmers per unit area of farmland. Could mean that a country has inefficient agriculture.
High Housing Density
The number of dwelling units per unit of area -- may mean people live in overcrowded housing
process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time (through complex transportation, communications, resulting in complicated interactions) Can mean people in different regions can modify ideas at the same time in different ways.
the place from which an innovation originates; diffuses from there to other places [diffusion]
How a hearth emerges
Cultural group must be willing to try something new and be able to allocate resources to nurture the innovation. Group of people must have the technical ability to achieve the desired idea and economic structures, to facilitate implementation of the innovation.
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another; migrate for political, economic, envir. issues that bring their culture with them to a new place; helps understand spread of AIDS
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Spread of ana idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places of power (hip-hop: low-income people, but urban society); from people/places of power
rapid, widespread difufsion of a characteristic throughout the population; diseases and ideas spread without relocation
spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse.
A compass direction such as north or south.
Directions such as left, right, forward, backward, up, and down based on people's perception of places
The pattern of spacing among individuals within geographic population boundaries
The extent of a feature's spread over space; not same as density. Can have same density but completely different this
If the objects in an area are close together
If objects in an area are relatively far apart
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic, connectivity between two places.
Arrangement of features in space; three main properties: density, concentration, pattern
Geographic study of human-environment relationships
An approach made by Humboldt and Ritter, 19th century geographers, which concentrated on how the physical environment caused social development, applying laws from the natural sciences to understanding relationships between the physical environment and human actions
The position that something occupies on Earth's surface
The position of place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expresed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England. (Also known as Mathematical Location)
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places.
a physical character of a place, such as characteristics like climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation
The location of a place relative to other places; valuable to indicate location: finding an unfamiliar place and understanding its importance by comparing location with familiar one and learning their accessibility to other places
The name given to a place on earth; may be named for person, founder, or random famous person with no connection to place. Places can change names.
The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a sturdy area.
straight pattern, ex. houses along a street
clustered or concentrated at a certain place
a pattern with no specific order or logic behind its arrangement
A physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics, generally identified to help explain broad global or national patterns, generally illustrating a general concept rather than a precise mathematical distribution
Area organized around a node or focal point/place where there is a central focus that diminishes in importance outward. Used to display information about economic areas.
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity from people's informal sense of place such as mental maps.
Relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and the Earth as a whole.
of or pertaining to space on or near Earth's surface. Often a synonym for geographical and used as an adjective to describe specific geographic concepts or processes.
the movement and flows involving human activity
the opportunity for contact or interaction from a given point or location, in relation to other locations.
the directness of routes linking pairs of places; an indication of the degree of internal connection in a transport network; all of the tangible and intangible means of connection and communication between places.
the areal pattern of sets of places and the routes (links) connecting them along which movement can take place.
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Friction of distance
a measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction; the greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
an influence on the rate of expansion diffusion of an idea, observing that the spread or acceptance of an idea is usually delayed as distance from the source of the innovation increases.
disadvantages for maps depicting the entire world of the: shape, distance, relative size, and direction of places on maps
Geographic Information System (GIS)
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data. Uses geocoding to calculate relationships between objects on a map's significance
Global Positioning System (GPS)
system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth, which includes several satellites in predetermined orbits and tracking stations to code the precise location of objects and reach a certain point
North and South Poles
the points farthest north and south on the Earth along its axis
The numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel
a circle draw around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
the numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the Prime Meridian.
An arc drawn between the North and South poles; A measure of Longitude
0 degrees Longitude
International Date Line
An arc that fro the most part follows 180º longitude, although it deviates in several place to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross it heading east, the clock moves back 24 hours, and when you cross it going west the calendar moves ahead one day.
A two-dimensional or flat-scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it
distance on a map relative to the distance on Earth
a map that demonstrates a particular feature or a single variable. Four types: dot, isoline, choropleth, and proportional symbol.
a thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable
a thematic map in which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones.
a thematic map with lines that connect points of equal value.
A special type of map in which the variation in quantity of a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated; such as a dot map
a map that has been simplified to present a single idea ina diagrammatic way: the base is not normally true to scale.
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface; depicting what an individual knows about a place -- containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where a place is located
A simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify casual relationships; used to explain patterns, make informed decisions, and predict future behaviors
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition model.
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Von Thunen Model
Model of agricultural land use, an agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less
German sociologist that regarded the development of rational social orders as humanity's greatest achievement. Saw bureaucratization (the process whereby labor is divided into an organized community and individuals acquire a sense of personal identity by finding roles for themselves in large systems) as the driving force in modern society.
Stages of Growth [Rostow]
Five stage economical model of development by a pioneering advocate
Concentric Circle [Burgess]
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district [CBD]
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities
Central Place [Christaller]
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services, larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
an area that uses the same clock time earth is divided into 24 standardtime zones, and they have thier own time zones
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