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77 terms

HRM Vocabulary - Chapter 1-3

Final Exam Chapters 1-3
STUDY
PLAY
Human Resource Management
The field of study and practice that focuses on people in organizations
Organizational Life Cycle
Stages through which an organization moves after its founding
Entrepreneurial Stage
•First stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on survival
Communal Stage
•Second stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on expansion and innovation
Formalization Stage
•Third stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on establishing clear practices and procedures for carrying out work
Elaboration Stage
•Final stage in the organizational life cycle

•Focuses on reinvention and adaptation to change
Stakeholders
Individuals or groups who are affected by or who affect and organization
Employee Turnover
The process in which employees leave the organization and are replaced by other employees
Strategic Management
The human resource function concerned with strategic planning for producing and marketing goods and services
Workforce Planning and Employement
The human resource function concerned with designing jobs and placing people in those jobs
The human Resource Development
The human resource function concerned with helping employees learn knowledge and skills
Total Rewards
The human resource function concerned with managing employee pay and benefits
Employee and Labor Relations
The human resource function concerned with building and maintaining good relationships with employees and labor unions
Risk Management
The human resource function concerned with employees physical and mental well-being
Employee Advocate Role
A human resource role concerned with looking out for the interests of employees and ensuring that they are treated fairly
Strategic Partner Role
A human resource role concerned with providing inputs that help an organization put its competitive strategy into action
Human Capitol Developer Role
A human resource role concerned with facilitating learning and skill development
Competency
Knowledge, skill, ability, and other personal attributes needed to perform a work behavior
Business Knowledge Competencies
Knowledge and skills in areas of general business, such as financ, accounting, marketing, and operations planning
Human Resource Practice Competencies
Knowledge and skills applied to carry out actions such as recruiting, hiring, training, and compensating
Change Management Competencies
Knowledge and skills applied to help an organizatino grow and adapt to new conditions
Population Trends
Demographic trends related to the characteristcis of people in a certain population
Labor Force Trends
Trends concerning the number and types of people who are working or looking for work
Employment Opportunity Trends
Trends concerning the types of jobs that will be available in the future
Education and Training Trends
Trends concerning the knowledge and skills workers will need in the future
Globalization Trends
Trends concerning the process by which companies move from doing business in many countries
Strategy
Coordination choices and actions that provide direction for people and organizations
Competitive Business Strategy
Strategy that focuses on different ways to provide goods and services that meet customer needs
Human Resource Strategy
Strategy that focuses on different ways of managing employees of an organization
External Environment
Forces outside the organizations boundaries that influence the organizations external environment
Opportunities
Positive elements of an organizations external environment
Strengths
Positive elements that define areas in which an organization has high internal capability
Weakness
Negative factors that define areas in which an organization has low internal capability
Corporate-Level Strategy
A competitive strategy that concerns the different business and diversity of products and services that an organization produces
Business-Level Strategy
A competitive strategy that concerns how an organization, or part of an organization, will compete with other organizations that produce similar goods or services
Cost Leadership Strategy
A business-level strategy that seeks to produce goods and services that are in some manner superior to what is produced by competitors
Differentiation Strategy
A business-level strategy that seeks to produce goods and services that are in some manner superior to what is produced by competitors
Role
Behaviors that define how a person is expected to act in a given setting, such as the workplace
Universal Approach
A human resource perspective that seeks to identify methods of managing people that are effective for al organizations
Contingency Approach
A human resource perspective that seeks to align different ways of managing people with different competitive strategies for producing goods and services
Human Resource Bundles
Groups of human resource practices that work together to create a consistent work environment
Control Strategy
A human resource bundle that emphasizes managerial control and tries to streamline production processes
Commitment Strategy
A human resource bundle that builds strong attachment to the organization an emphasizes worker empowerment
Internal Labor Orientation
A human resource perspective that emphasizes hiring workers early in their careers and retaining those workers for long periods of time
External Labor Orientation
A human resource perspective that limits attachment to a specific organization and emphasizes hiring workers who already possess the skills they need to complere specific tasks
Loyal Soldier HR Strategy
A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on long-term employees with a focus on reducing costs

•An internal/cost approach
Bargain Laborer HR Strategy
A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on short-term employees with a focus on reducing costs

•An external/cost approach
Committed Expert HR Strategy
A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on long-term employees with a focus on producing unique goods and services

•An internal/differentiation approach
Free Agent HR Strategy
A human resource strategy that combines emphasis on short-term employees with a focus on producing unique goods and services

•An external/differentiation approach
Immutable Characteristics
Personal characteristics that cannot reasonable be changes such as race an sex
Title VII
The portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that focuses specifically on employment discrimination
Protected Classess
Groups of people, such as racial minorities and women, who are protected against discrimination
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
A federal agency with responsibility to oversee, investigate, and litigate claims of employment discrimination
Discrimination
In the context of employment, unfair treatment that occurs when people from particular groups are not given the same employment opportunities as people in other groups
Equal Employment Opportunity
Absence of discrimination in the workplace

•The condition in which people have an equal chance for desirable employment regardless of belonging to a certain race, gender, or other group
Disparate Treatment
The practice of treating job applicants and employees differently based on race, gender, or some other group characteristic
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ)
Characteristics of members of a specific group that is necessary to perform a certain job
Adverse Impact
Discrimination that results from employer practices that are not discriminatory on their face but have a discriminatory impact
Validity
The quality of being justifiable

•To be valid, a method of selecting employees must accurately predict who will perform the job well
Four-Fifths Rule
Evidence of adverse impact that occurs when the hiring rate of one group is less than 80% of the hiring rate of another group
Harassment
In the workplace, improper actions or words of coworkers that cause an employee to feel persistently annoyed or alarmed
Sexual Harassment
In the workplace, improper words or actions that are sexual in nature or that are directed toward workers of a specific sex or sexual orientation
Quid Pro Quo
A form of sexual harassment that makes continued employment and advancement contingent upon sexual favors
Hostile Environment
A form of sexual harassment that occurs when employees create an offensive environment in the workplace that interferes with an individuals ability to perform work duties
Race Norming
The process of evaluating an applicants score by comparing the score only with scores achieved by people of the same race
Punitive Damages
Payments ordered by courts that exceed actual damages and are designed to punish a defendant
Physical Disabilities
Body impairments that substantially limit an individuals ability to engage in normal life activities
Mental Disabilities
Impairments of the mind that substantially limit an individuals ability to engage in normal life activities
Reasonable Accommodations
Under the ADA, an alteration of the work environment that enables a qualified individual with a disability to perform essential tasks
Undue Hardship
Under the ADA, a sever economic or other hardship placed on an employer by the requirement to make accommodations for workers with disabilities

•An employer is not required to make accommodations that impose undue hardship
Comparable Worth
A measure that assumes that each job has an inherent value to the organization and that dissimilar jobs can be compared to determine whether the pay for these jobs reflects this value
Affirmative Action Plan
A plan aimed at increasing representation of employees from a protected class who have historically been victims of discrimination
Utilization Study
An assessment to determine how closely an organizations pool of employees reflects the racial and gender profile of the surrounding community
Emergency Action Plan Standard
The OSHA requirement that organizations develop a plan for dealing with emergencies such as fires or natural disasters
Hazard Communication Standard
The OSHA requirement that organizations identify and label chemicals that might harm workers
Medical and First Aid Standard
The OSHA requirement that an organization make medical and first aid resources available to workers who may become injured
Workers Compensation
State programs that provide workers and families with work-related accidents and injuries