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Anatomy & Physiology Midterm
Terms in this set (72)
Organismal levels 1-6:
atoms, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
Define anatomy and physiology:
A: the study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts. P: the study of how the body and its parts work or function
Drag and drop: know the body systems and what their functions are
ability to sense changes in the environment and then react to them
Know the order of homeostasis:
Stimulus, receptor, input, output, responsiveness (Figure 1.9 in Textbook)
Drag and drop directional terms
ex:(in relation to belly button): anterior to spine, medial to arms, superior to legs, inferior to nose
Label the 4 cavities:
Dorsal, ventral, thoracic, abdominopelvic
Plane that divides upper and lower part of body:
T/F: the stomach is in the Upper Left Quadrant:
Drag and drop:
axillary (armpit), Acromial (shoulder), Coxal (hip), Sural (calf)
Instability of internal conditions is known as:
inability of body to restore, fix, stabilize, internal environment
On an Individual level which of these is NOT a survival need: Nutrients, oxygen, normal body temp, atmospheric pressure, reproduction?
1.Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function are called:
2. Simple epithelium is most concerned with:
absorption, secretion, and filtration
3. From most rigid to softest or fluid what are the major connective tissues?
Bone, cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue, and blood. *
4. Cardiac tissue is not striated. True or false?
5. What muscle tissue has obvious striations and is controlled voluntarily?
6. What is it called when a muscle decreases in size?
7. Within tissue repair, replacement of destroyed cells by the same kinds of cells is
8. Regeneration or fibrosis occurrence is dependent upon what two variables
Type of tissue damage and severity of injury
9. When enlargement of certain body tissues or organs takes place due to a local irritant or condition stimulating cells this is called:
10. Which cartilage is most widespread? a. elastic b. fibro c. hyaline
11. What major cell type is found in cartilage?
12. Wavelike motion that keeps food moving through the small intestine is called:
What are five main functions of the bones?
Support, Protection, Allow Movement, Storage, Blood Cell Formation
How are bones classified?
Compact, Spongy, Long, Flat, Short, Irregular
What anatomical contents can be found in a long bone structure?
Diaphysis, Periosteum, Epiphyses, Articular Cartilage, Epiphyseal Plate, Epiphyseal Line, Medullary Cavity, Perforating Fibers
What is the difference between the epiphyseal plate and epiphyseal line?
The epiphyseal plate has hyaline cartilage and is a sign that shows that the bone is still ossifying while the epiphyseal line shows that the hyaline cartilage ossified into bone.
What are the stages of Bone Formation?
What is the difference between bone growth and bone remodeling?
Bone growth focuses on the growth of cartilage while bone remodeling is controlled from calcium ion levels in the blood and the pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton
What is the treatment for a fracture?
Which facial bone do all other facial bones meet, except one.
The sternal angle separates which two bones?
(Answer: body, sternum)
Which bone is held in place by trunk muscles?
What are the 5 regions of the spine and how many bones in each region?
Cervical 7, thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacral 5 fused, coccyx 4 fused
What is the function of the vertebral foramen?
It is the canal in which the spinal cord passes.
What bone attaches to the glenoid cavity at the lateral angle?
What two bones form the skeleton of the forearm?
radius and ulna
What are the three types of joints classified as functional?
synarthroses, amphiarthrosis, diarthroses
Where are the bursae (fluid-filled sacs) found?
What bone is known as the sit bone?
Fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones of a newborn are called _____ =
_____ results when the ligaments or tendons reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching or are torn away from the bone.
T/F - In a hinge joint the rounded end of one bone fits into a sleeve or ring of bone.
False- pivot joint
What bones form the shoulder girdle?
clavicle and scapula
How many bones are in the appendicular skeleton?
126 bones of the limbs and pectoral and pelvic girdles
What does the appendicular skeleton do?
Attaches the limbs to the axial skeleton
What disease is caused by the buildup of uric acid, that typically affects a single joint, often in the great toe?
1. What muscle of shoulder causes Abduction, and what muscle of shoulder causes Adduction?
Deltoid, Teres Major
2. What is a fixator, what does it do for other muscles?
-Hold bone still and stabilizes
3. What is an agonist muscle?
-Is the prime mover
4. What is an antagonist muscle?
-Reverses a movement
5. What are the five functions of muscles?
-produce movement, maintain posture and position, stabilize joints, generate heat, protect vital organs.
6. What is the difference between rotation and circumduction?
-rotation: movement around the longitudinal axis. Circumduction proximal end is stationary and distal end moves in a circle.
7. In terms of body movements what does flexion do?
-Decreases the angle of a join, brings two bones together
8. Twitch vs. sum vs. unfused vs. fused
-twitch: single stimuli,-sum: muscle does not have time to completely relax before next contraction,-unfused: faster stimuli rate,-fused: smooth without relaxation extreme tension
What are the 5 golden rules of skeletal muscle activity?
a. -all cross at least 1 joint
b. -typically, the bulk lies proximal to the join crossed
c. -all muscles have 2 attachments: origin and insertion
d.-only pull, never push
10. Does "all or none apply" to the muscle fiber or the whole muscle.
11. Muscles contract and shorten. True or False?
12. What is muscle irritability/responsiveness?
-The ability to receive and respond to stimulus
1. What muscle flexes the thigh on the hip?
2. What muscles are the quadriceps?
3. What are symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis? What causes MG?
Drooping of the eyelids, difficulty swallowing/ talking, generalized muscle weakness and fatigue , Shortage of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions
4. Arrangement of Fascicles and their structures and properties?
Circular: Orbicularis Oris
Convergent: Pectoralis Major
Fusiform: Biceps Brachii
Bipennate: Rectus Femoris
Unipennate: Extensor Digitorum Longus
5. What does OT treatment for torticollis look like?
Stretching exercises for infants
6. What does OT treatment for MD look like?
maintaining muscle mass for as long as possible.
7. What is the relationship between the development of the muscular system and the nervous system in embryo/infants?
In the embryo the muscular system is laid down in segments and then each segment is invaded by nerves.
Nerve fibers must be myelinated before babies can control their muscles
8. What is the function of the Buccinator?
Flattens the cheek Puckers the lips
Closes the jaw and elevates the mandible
Closes, squints, blinks eyes
9. What is the function of the exterior and interior intercostal muscles?
The exterior intercostal muscles raise the ribcage and allow for breathing in. The interior intercostals compress the ribcage and allow us to breathe out.
10. Which muscle group is the prime mover of back extension?
11. What structural feature makes the abdominal musculature especially strong for its thickness?
The muscle fascicles of the different layers of muscles run in different directions.
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