1. Which is mismatched? Fleming - penicillin Domagk - sulfonamide Ehrlich - tetracycline Florey and Chain - penicillin None of the choices are correct.
Ehrlich - tetracycline
2. Salvarsan was discovered in the mid-1900's. used to treat syphilis. formulated from the red dye prontosil. first discovered as a product of Penicillium notatum. discovered by Robert Koch.
used to treat syphilis.
3. Substances that are naturally produced by certain microorganisms that can inhibit or destroy other microorganisms are called antibiotics. narrow-spectrum drugs. semisynthetic drugs. synthetic drugs. broad-spectrum drugs
4. Antimicrobics effective against a wide variety of microbial types are termed antibiotics. narrow-spectrum drugs. semisynthetic drugs. synthetic drugs. broad-spectrum drugs.
5. Antibiotics are derived from all the following except Penicillium. Bacillus. Staphylococcus. Streptomyces. Cephalosporium
6. Important characteristics of antimicrobic drugs include readily delivered to the site of infection. high toxicity against microbial cells. do not cause serious side effects in humans. remains active in body tissues and fluids. All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct.
7. Broad-spectrum drugs that disrupt the body's normal flora often cause nephrotoxicity. superinfections. allergic reactions. drug toxicity. All of the choices are correct.
8. Penicillins and cephalosporins interfere with DNA synthesis. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis. damage cell membranes. block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
block the peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules.
9. Sulfonamides interfere with elongation of peptidoglycan. are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis. attach to the 30S ribosomal subunit and disrupt protein synthesis. damage cell membranes. block peptidases that cross-link glycan molecules
are metabolic analogs of PABA and block folic acid synthesis.
10. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, mezlocillin, and penicillin G all have a beta-lactam ring. resistance to the action of penicillinase. a semisynthetic nature. an expanded spectrum of activity. All of the choices are correct.
a beta-lactam ring.
11. A chemical that inhibits beta-lactamase enzymes is synercid. penicillinase. aztreonam. clavulanic acid. imipenem.
12. All of the following pertain to cephalosporins except they have a beta-lactam ring. greater resistance to beta-lactamases. newer generations have activity against gram negatives. many administered by injection not orally. they are synthetic drugs.
they are synthetic drugs.
13. This drug is used to treat cases of tuberculosis penicillin G. vancomycin. aminoglycosides. synercid. isoniazid.
14. Which of these drugs is useful in treating infections by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus? tetracycline isoniazid linezolid aminoglycosides cephalosporins
15. All of the following pertain to fluoroquinolones except broad spectrum. include ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. are nephrotoxic. used to treat respiratory, urinary, and sexually transmitted infections. they work by inhibiting bacterial DNA replication.
16. The most versatile and useful antifungal drug that is used to treat serious systemic fungal infections is nystatin. griseofulvin. amphotericin B. sulfa drugs. metronidazole.
17. There are fewer antifungal, antiprotozoan, and antihelminth drugs compared to antibacterial drugs because these organisms do not cause many human infections. are not affected by antimicrobics. are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult. are parasites found inside human cells. have fewer target sites compared to bacteria.
are so similar to human cells that drug selective toxicity is difficult.
18. Which of the following is not a mode of action of antivirals? block penetration block transcription and translation inhibit DNA synthesis block maturation bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
bond to ergosterol in the cell membrane
19. An antiviral that is a guanine analog would have an antiviral mode of action that blocks penetration. blocks DNA replication. inhibits peptidoglycan cross linking. blocks maturation. bonds to ergosterol in the cell membrane.
blocks DNA replication.
20. Antivirals that target reverse transcriptase would be used to treat influenza A virus. HIV. herpes zoster virus. respiratory syncytial virus. hepatitis C virus.
21. Acyclovir is used to treat influenza A virus. HIV. shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes. respiratory syncytial virus. hepatitis C virus.
shingles, chickenpox, and genital herpes.
22. The cellular basis for bacterial resistance to antimicrobics include bacterial chromosomal mutations. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure. prevention of drug entry into the cell. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets. All of the choices are correct.
All of the choices are correct.
23. The multidrug resistant pumps in many bacterial cell membranes cause bacterial chromosomal mutations. synthesis of enzymes that alter drug structure. prevention of drug entry into the cell. alteration of drug receptors on cell targets. All of the choices are correct
prevention of drug entry into the cell.
24. Side effects that occur in patient tissues while they are on antimicrobic drugs include all the following except development of resistance to the drug. hepatotoxicity. nephrotoxicity. diarrhea. deafness
development of resistance to the drug.
25. A superinfection results from build up of a drug to toxic levels in the patient. the wrong drug administered to the patient. an immune system reaction to the drug. decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species. All of the choices are correct.
decrease in most normal flora with overgrowth of an unaffected species.
26. Drug susceptibility testing determines the patient's response to various antimicrobics. determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics. determines if normal flora will be affected by antimicrobics. determines if the drug is increasing to toxic levels in a patient. determines the pathogen's identity.
determines the pathogen's response to various antimicrobics.
27. A clinical microbiologist makes serial dilutions of several antimicrobics in broth, then incubates each drug dilution series with a standard amount of a patient's isolated pathogen. What is this microbiologist setting up? Kirby-Bauer antibiogram E-test MIC therapeutic index (TI)
28. Antimicrobics effective against only gram positive bacteria would be termed antibiotics. narrow-spectrum drugs. semisynthetic drugs. synthetic drugs. broad-spectrum drugs.
29. A "shotgun" approach to antimicrobial therapy involves giving a narrow spectrum drug. culturing the pathogen and identifying it. performing the disk diffusion assay. using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater. using antiviral and antibiotic drugs in combination.
using a broad spectrum drug so that the chance of killing the pathogen is greater
30. Which of the following will influence a physician's decision to prescribe an antimicrobial? patient age pregnancy liver function alcohol use All of the choices are correct
All of the choices are correct.
31. All of the following could be reasons why antimicrobic treatment fails except the inability of the drug to diffuse into the infected body compartment. a mixed infection where some of the pathogens are drug resistant. not completing the full course of treatment. a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic. diminished gastrointestinal absorption due to an underlying condition or age.
a disk diffusion test showing pathogen sensitivity to the antimicrobic
32. All of the following are correct about allergic reactions to drugs except the drug acts as an antigen. the greatest number of antimicrobic allergies are to the penicillins. hives may be the result after the drug is taken. anaphylaxis can occur. allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.
allergic reactions generally will occur the first time a person takes the drug.
33. Which organ is responsible for metabolizing and detoxifying foreign chemicals in the blood, including drugs? Liver Kidneys Gall bladder Spleen Stomach
34. Which of the following antimicrobials is contraindicated for children due to permanent tooth discoloration? Penicillin G Tetraclycline Gentamicin Vancomycin Erythromycin
35. Why has the United States and Europe banned the use of human drugs in animal feeds? Because it makes the animals grow too large. Because it causes infections in the cows and poultry fed them. Because it raises the price of the meat too high. Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem. All of the choices are correct.
Because it contributes to the growing drug resistance problem.
36. Which of the following describes the mechanism of action for AZT? it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis it directly binds to reverse transcriptase and prevents reverse transcription of HIV RNA it inhibits the assembly of HIV particles it inhibits fusion of the viral envelope and host cell envelope. it prevents the viral DNA from integrating in the host chromosome
it is a thymine analog that interferes with DNA synthesis
37. All of the following are correct about Tamiflu and Relenza except they should be given early in an infection. they prevent assembly and release of the virus. they are used to treat infections by influenza A and B. they inhibit fusion and uncoating of the virus. they are effective prophylactics for influenza.
they prevent assembly and release of the virus.
38. When a patient's immune system reacts adversely to a drug, this serious side effect is called a superinfection. True False
39. A semisynthetic antibiotic is a drug which is chemically modified in the laboratory after being isolated from natural sources. True False
40. Species of Bacillus produce bacitracin and the polymyxins. True False
41. Ciprofloxacin is used to treat viral respiratory infections. True False
42. Resistance factor plasmids are transferred to other bacterial cells during transformation, transduction, and conjugation. True False
43. The MIC is the smallest concentration of an antimicrobic required to inhibit the growth of the microbe. True False
44. Drugs that are hepatotoxic cause damage to a patient's kidneys. True False
45. The Kirby-Bauer test uses an agar surface, seeded with the test bacterium, to which small discs containing a specific concentration of several drugs are placed on the surface. True False
46. _____ are plasmids that contain genes for resistance to a drug.
47. Sulfonamides are analogs of PABA and, as a result, they inhibit _____ synthesis.
48. Drugs that act by mimicking the normal substrate of an enzyme, thereby blocking its active site, are called
49. The major source of naturally produced penicillin is the mold _____.
50. Polyene drugs bind to fungal _____ and cause loss of selective permeability.
51. If pathogen A is more resistant to an erythromycin disc on a Kirby-Bauer plate compared to pathogen B, then pathogen A will have a _____ zone of inhibition compared to pathogen B.