Chapter 17. Marketing Communications
Terms in this set (17)
MKT Communication Mix-6 types & Table 17.1 (478)
The Marketing communications mix consists of eight major modes of communication.
1) ___ : Any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor via print media (newspapers, magazines), broadcast media (radio and television), network media (telephone, cable, satellite, wireless), electronic media (audiotape, videotape, webpage) and display media (billboards, signs, posters)
2) ___ ___: A variety of short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase of a product or service include consumer promotions (samples, coupons and premiums), trade promotions (advertising and display allowances) and business and sales force promotions(contests for sales reps)
3) ___ ___ ____: Company-sponsored activities and programs designed to create daily or special brand-related interactions with consumers, including sports, arts, entertainment and cause events as well as less formal activities.
4) ___ ___ ___ ____: A variety of programs directed internally to employees of the company or externally to consumers, other firms, the government, and media to promote or protect a company's image or its individual product communications.
5) __ ____: Use of mail, telephone, fax, email, or Internet to communicate directly with or solicit response or dialogue from specific customers and prospects.
6) ___ ____: online activities and programs designed to engage customers or prospects and directly or indirectly raise awareness, improve image, or elicit sales of products and services.
7) ___ ___ ___ ____: People to people oral, written or electronic communications that relate to the merits or experiences of purchasing or using products or services.
8) __ ___: Face to face interaction with one or more prospective purchasers for the purpose of making presentations, answering questions and procuring orders.
2. Sales promotions
3. Events and experiences
4. Public relations and publicity
5. Direct marketing
6. Interactive marketing
7. Word of mouth marketing
8. personal selling
Macromodel with 9 factors of effective communication
___ of marketing communications concentrate on consumers' specific responses to communications.
___ ____ ___ " sequence is appropriate when the audience has high involvement with a product category perceived to have high differentiation, such as an automobile or house.
___ ___ ___ " is relevant when the audience has high involvement but perceives little or no differentiation within the product category, such as an airline ticket or personal computer.
___ ___ ___is relevant when the audience has low involvement and perceives little differentiation, such as with salt or batteries.
learn feel do
do feel learn
learn do feel
All these models in the micro model pass through 3 stages
1. cognitive stage
2. affective stage
3. behavior stage
The 3 most often identified sources of credibility are
1)expertise 2)trustworthiness 3) likeability
Creative Strategy-Types (484-85)
1. informational appeals
2. transformational appeals
elaborates on product or service attributes or benefits. (Examples in advertising are problem solution ads; Excedrin stops headaches, product demonstration ads; Thompson water can withstand instead rain, product comparison ads; DIRECTV offers better HD options than cable and testimonials from unknown celebrities or endorsers.
elaborates on a nonproduct related benefit or image. (It might depict what kind of person uses the brand. VW advertised to active and youthful people. Or it might depict what kind of experience results from the brand; Pringles advertised "Once you pop the fun don't stop for years"
are communications directed to more than one person and include advertising, sales promotions, events and experiences, and public relations.
Nonpersonal channels (mass communication)
Budget methods in communication
2. Percentage of sales
3. Competitive parity method
4. Objective and task method
sets budget on what the company can afford. (It ignores the role of promotion as an investment and the immediate impact of promotion on sales volume. It leads to an uncertain annual budget which makes long-range planning difficult.
sets communication expenditures at a specified percentage of current or anticipated sales or of the sales price. (Automobile companies typically budget a fixed percentage based on the planned car price. This views sales as the determiner of communications rather than as the result. It leads to a budget set by the availability of funds rather than by market opportunities.)
Percentage of sales method
Companies set their communication budget to achieve share-of-voice parity with competitors. (There are 2 supporting arguments: competitors expenditures represent the collective wisdom of the industry and that maintaining competitive parity prevents communication wars. However neither argument is valid, there are no grounds for believing competitors know better)
Competitive parity method
This method calls upon marketers to develop communication budgets by defining specific objectives, determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives and estimating the costs of performing them. The sum of these costs is the proposed communication budget. (This method has the advantage of requiring management to spell out its assumptions about the relationship among dollars spent, exposure levels, trial rates and regular usage)
Objective and Task Method
Characteristics of publicity
1. high credibility
2. ability to reach hard to find buyers