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In the first stage of cellular respiration, two molecules of pyruvate are produced. In the remaining stages, a number of products are produced, including _____. This process occurs in the _____.

CO2 ... mitochondria

What are the limits on which maximum cell size depends?

surface-to-volume ratio

The synthesis of glucose by photosynthesis is an endergonic process. The source of the energy for the excited electrons is _____.


What purpose is directly served by chlorophyll a during photosynthesis?

It allows for the conversion of energy.

Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?


In cellular respiration, glucose _____ electrons, while _____ electrons.

loses ... oxygen gains

During cellular respiration, NADH

delivers its electron load to the first electron carrier molecule.

The eukaryotic cell has multiple membrane-enclosed compartments. This evolutionary innovation provides what advantage to the cell?

The different membrane-enclosed spaces allow different parts of the cell to perform specific functions.

In oil-based liquids, phospholipids are arranged so that their _____ face outward and their _____ are orientated inward.

hydrophobic tails ... hydrophilic heads

In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in _____.

carbon dioxide

Primarily, cellular respiration serves to _____.

make ATP to power the cell's activities

The alpha helix and pleated sheet represent which level of protein structure?

secondary structure

Which of the following clues would tell you whether a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes

Fatty acids with double bonds between some of their carbons are said to be


Digestive cells produce many enzymes that break down ingested food. These cells have a large number of ribosomes _____.

on the rough endoplasmic reticulum

Peptide bonds are formed between _____. However, it is the properties of the _____ that determine the overall shape of the protein.

amino and carboxyl groups ... R group

Some protozoans have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment

is hypotonic to the protozoan.

The synthesis of an amino acid follows this pathway: precursor A → intermediate B → amino acid C. Each reaction is catalyzed by a different enzyme. This metabolic pathway is controlled by feedback inhibition with amino acid C inhibiting the conversion of precursor A to intermediate B. Amino acid C acts as a _____ of the first enzyme in the pathway.

allostreic (noncompetitive) inhibitor

Plants use sugars as

a fuel for cellular respiration and a starting material for making other organic molecules.

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts _____.

use an H+ gradient to produce ATP

A researcher made an interesting observation about a protein made by the rough endoplasmic reticulum and eventually used to build a cell's plasma membrane. The protein in the membrane was actually slightly different from the protein made in the ER. The protein was probably altered in the _____.

Golgi apparatus

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar in that they both _____; they are different in that chloroplasts, but not mitochondria, _____.

have a double membrane ... carry out photosynthesis

We inhale O2 and we exhale CO2. Carbon dioxide is produced _____.

in the reaction that creates acetyl CoA (coenzyme A) from pyruvate

The molecular formula of most monosaccharides represents a multiple of


How does DNA differ from RNA?

RNA contains ribose, DNA does not.

In yeast cells, ______ is produced after glycolysis.


What is the key difference between active immunity and passive immunity?

In active immunity, a body produces its own antibodies; in passive immunity, a person receives pre-made antibodies.

A substance that causes an immune response is called a(n) _____.


A virus enters your system and successfully invades and infects a cell. At this point it is vulnerable to recognition or attack by _____.

T cells

When a B cell binds to a virus or other pathogen, it _____.

becomes activated, divides rapidly, and thereby mounts a specialized response against the pathogen.

Antibodies are _____.

specialized proteins that attach to pathogens and disable them or mark them for destruction by immune cells

When a B cell first interacts with its particular antigen, the B cell

differentiates and develops into a clone of antibody-producing cells.

How does antigen-antibody binding result in destruction of the antigen?

Antibodies bind the antigen, which then targets the antigen for elimination by innate mechanisms.

An antigen-presenting cell is a _____.


Which cell type is specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?

T cell

What type of cell acts as an intermediary between humoral and cell-mediated immunity?

Helper T Cell

How does HIV destroy helper T cells?

It initiates apoptosis in infected helper T cells.

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