AP US History terms for Unit 2: American Revolution
Terms in this set (...)
a period from 1607-1763 in which England did not strictly enforce Parliamentary laws, which allowed the colonies to flourish as almost independent states for many years.
an economic system in which the government regards money as stored wealth. The goal is to store up precious metals and to export as much as possible but to import as little as possible.
Sugar Act 1764 (Revenue Act)
placed tariffs on sugar, wine, coffee, and other imported items. Colonists refused to pay it.
Prime Minister William Pitt's successor. Encouraged Parliament to institute many of the laws that they did.
King George III
The King of England. Was not very sympathetic toward the revolutionary cause.
Stamp Act 1765
placed taxes on all printed materials i.e. legal papers, playing cards, and newspapers.
Stamp Act Congress
established in 1765. Comprised of delegates from nine colonies to petition Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act.
Sons of Liberty
a violent organization opposed to English rule. They staged riots and vandalized the homes of stamp distributors.
Declaratory Act 1767
an act reaffirming England's authority to pass any law it desired to bind the colonies and people of America.
Townshend Revenue Act 1767
taxed many imports, including glass, lead, paints, paper, silk, and tea. Unlike other taxes, it was an indirect tax payable at American ports.
Board of Customs Commissioners
created by Parliament to enforce trade regulations and establish vice -admiralty courts to deal with colonists who violated the law.
one of the most outspoken proponents of the non-importation pact. Later became one of the leaders of the Revolution.
happened in 1770. Colonists threw snowballs at and taunted a British soldier. When the crowd grew, the soldiers panicked and fired into the crowd, killing five and injuring several
Tea Act 1773
allowed the East India Tea Company to bypass English and American wholesalers and sell directly to American merchants at reduced prices. Many Americans boycotted tea as a result.
Boston Tea Party
Samuel Adams and about fifty Sons of Liberty disguised themselves as Indians and dumped several hundred chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.
Coercive Acts 1774 (Intolerable Acts)
1. The Boston Port Act closed the city's harbor to all commercial traffic until the East India Company was paid for the lost tea. 2. The Administration of Justice Act transferred legal cases involving royal officials charged with capital crimes to Great Britain. 3. The Massachusetts Government Act increased the governor's powers, decreased the authority of the local town meetings, and made elective offices subject to royal appointment. 4. The Quartering Act, applied to all colonies, required citizens to house British soldiers when other living quarters proved inadequate.
Quebec Act 1774
extended the Canadian border south to include the Ohio River Valley, land that had previously been claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Virginia.
John Locke & Two Treatises of Government
a philosopher of the Enlightenment. He rejected "divine right" and said that governments were created by the governed as social compacts. If the government did not protect the peoples' natural rights then it should be overthrown. Locke obviously had great influence on American ideals.
Thomas Paine & Common Sense
argued that the cause of American hostility was not Parliament but the king himself. The pamphlet was very outspoken and called for an American republic where free citizens were in control.
1st Continental Congress
a meeting of delegates from twelve colonies to decide how to respond to England's grievances against them. Included John Adams, George Washington, Samuel Adams, and Patrick Henry.
Albany Plan of Union 1774
called for an American government consisting of a president appointed by the king and a council selected by the colonies. American officials would regulate internal colonial affairs and possess the power to veto parliamentary acts affecting the colonies, but remain subordinate to Parliament and the Crown. Proposed by Joseph Galloway.
Declaration of Rights and Resolves
the declaration that Americans were entitled to legislate for themselves "in all cases of taxation and internal policy," conceding to Parliament only the power to regulate "our external commerce."
2nd Continental Congress
Added to the group from the 1st one were Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson.
Olive Branch Petition
professed American loyalty to the king and begged him to intercede for the Patriots against his controlling Parliament and ministers. King George, however, did not even read it.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms
written by John Dickinson and Thomas Jefferson. It said that Americans were prepared to fight to preserve their liberties as British citizens.
Americans still loyal to Britain and disapproving of the rebellion. Most were wealthy and of high status and did not want to lose these things.
Prohibitory Act 1776
closed all colonial ports and defined resistance to the Crown as treason.
German-speaking mercenaries hired by King George to subdue the colonies. Most colonists associated them with looting and torture and disliked them, and, in turn, lost respect for the king.
American soldiers who were said to be ready to fight in a minute.
Peace of Paris 1783
was finally signed on September 3, 1783, ending the war between America and Britain. Though the war pretty much ended with the Battle of Yorktown, complications with the French and Spanish pushed the war on.