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Chapter 2-5 World History
Terms in this set (85)
What are the five elements of civilization?
What does the Mayan calendar reveal about their astronomy and mathematics?
What evidence is there of specialization in the RVC's?
Location. Fertile Soil. Irrigation.
How did the Neolithic revolution help usher in the era of RVC's?
Stone-age nomads began to settle down in river valleys. They began developed agriculture and domesticate animals. With these developments came advances in technology, especially in metalurgy and writing. The Neolithic Revolution occurred first in river valleys because conditions there were the most condusive for agriculture.
What evidence did settling in river valleys provide to early civilizations?
The rivers provided them with fertile land, since the rivers produced silt.
What is fertile land?
Land that is suitable for growing crops.
what is irrigation?
system of supplying water that improves land fertility
What is silt?
fine soil deposited by the rivers.
How does river flooding help to irrigate land?
The river flooding produces silt.
What rivers were each of the RVC's located along?
Mesopotamia: Tigris, Euphrates rivers
Egypt: Nile river
Indus Valley: Indus river, Ganges Plain river
Yellow Valley: Yellow River, Yangtze River
What building material was used in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley to built walls, buildings, and other structures?
The traditional economies of the RVC's were based on ____ products and a ____ and barter system
What is a deity?
A god or goddess in polytheistic relgion
What is social stratification?
a system in which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. (rich have it better than the poor)
In which RVC was silk introduced to the ancient world?
Yellow Valley (China)
Where was mesopotamia located?
Present Day Iraq (Asia)
Why was it the "cradle of civilization"?
it is the place that nomadic tribes began building villages, becoming civilized with a language and rules, and starting modern society.
What did mesopotamians do to increase and expand the amount of fertile land?
What is a ziggurat and what does its location in the center of the towns tell you about their religion?
A ziggurat is a mesopotamian temple and it was located in the center of town because religion was very important to the mesopotamians.
What is the code of hammurabi? What was significant about it?
sophisticated law code related to babylonian king Hammurabi.
written in cuneiform and contained over 200 codes. It is significant because it established high standards of behavior and stern punishments for violators.
How does the Code of Hammurabi provide evidence of social class distinction?
The poor had harsher punishments for crimes than the wealthy.
What was the written language in Mesopotamia?
What is the Epic Of Gilgamesh?
Oldest story in the world written in cuneiform
Where was Sargon from? Why did he expand the role of the military?
Sargon was from the kingdom of Akkad in Mesopotamia. He expanded the role of the military to unite and conquer all of the sumerian city states.
What natural geographic defense barriers protected Egypt from invasion?
Surrounded by deserts.
What was the "Gift of the Nile"? What did Egypt develop because of this gift?
Egypt was the gift because the Nile helped to create fertile land which led to civilization and the developing of societies.
Why didn't the egyptians practice large scale irrigation early in their history?
The flooding of the Nile was predictable.
What was every Egyptian citizen required to do to help maintain proper irrigation to crops?
build dikes to protect fields from flood
What is the name of the northern region of Egypt where the Nile Delta is found?
Did ancient Egyptian history feature a period of city-state rule like Mesopotamia?
No it was a unified society.
What were egyptian god-kings called? What does it mean that they had monarchical authority?
Pharaohs. It means that they ruled and thought very highly of.
Who was the chief deity of Egypt? Why?
Amon Re. The gods favored the sun god, Amon, and the air god Re, so they combined the two to be a universal god.
What class/group posed a threat to the power of the pharaoh in ancient egypt?
Who was king Narmer?
King of Upper Egypt who conquered the northern rulers to create a unified government.
What was the written language of Egypt?
What material did Egyptians use to record their history?
Who was Hatshepsut?
The first and longest reigning female pharaoh, also considered one of the most successful pharaohs.
What were the three kingdoms of Egyptian history called?
The Old kingdom, middle kingdom, and the new kingdom
At the end of the new kingdom, what groups came to dominate the leadership of egypt?
Who conquered egypt in the 900s BCE?
Kushites, macedonians, persians, and assyrians
Why is much of the info about the Indus Valley still unknown?
Their form of writing was indecipherable
What is another name for the Indus Valley Civilization?
What was the written language of Indus Valley?
What two indus cities featured indoor plumbing, city planning, and grid like road systems?
Mohenjo Daro and Harappa
What evidence is there of advanced mathematics and a standardised system of weights and measures in the Indus Valley?
Bricks were consisted sizes throughout the land
What is a monsoon? How did it help irrigate lands of the indus valley?
a wind in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia that brings heavy rains in the summer. The rain irrigated the land.
Where did Indo-Europeans originate?
Southern Russia (?), they were foreginers
How did Indo europeans help lay the foundation for modern language?
They were nomadic and spoke indo european languages.
Who were the hittites? What technology did they spread throughout eurasia?
The most influential indo europeans that migrated to the central plain of Anatolia. They conquered the babylonians. They spread the technology of horse drawn chariots and iron metallurgy.
Who were the aryans?
light skinned invaders from the north (caucasus mountains).
took over the harappan civilization
what was the name of the social class/control system brought to ancient india by the aryans? In this system, what was one's class originally based on?
Varna: The caste system.
Based on skin color
How did the laws of manu reflect indian patriarchy and monarchy?
It stated how women should be treated with respect but should never be independent from men.
What is a caste? A varna? What was the castes/varnas?
A caste is a class in the hindu society, a varna is a caste system.
3. merchants/ farmers
4. commoners/ peasants.
Jati was a systems of sub castes: people working similar tasks
Where was the Yellow Valley Civilization found? why was it called that?
China., It is named that after the Yellow River, which produces yellow silt called loess.
What is China's Sorrow?
A nickname for the Huang He, or the Yellow River, because the river flooded unpredictably often causing destruction.
What is dynastic rule? What is the dynastic cycle?
Ruled by a group/ dynasties. 1. Xia 2.Shang 3.Zhou
How did the rulers of ancient china claim they got their power?
Mandate of Heaven
What were oracle bones used for?
communicating with the spirit world
The early religion of china and the shang dynasty was____.
What is animism?
belief that spirit inhabits everything
Who is shang di?
a god who controlled the forces of nature
The biggest military advancement of the indo europeans was their:
Early literary works that contained hymns, poems, and religious prayers were known as (Indus Valley):
Southern mesopotamian region and home of one of the first civilizations:
What separates upper egypt from nubia?
The Harappan civilization traded with...
Egypt and mesopotamia
Harappan religion featured a strong concern for ?
Where were chickens first domesticated?
Indo Europeans brought the first language to India. True or False.
What body does the tigris and euphrates river flow into?
What were city states of Sumer?
Ur and Uruk
What is a hierarchy?
Social class system consisting of Kings, Nobles, Scribes, Merchants/artistans, Commoners, Slaves
What is Lex Talionis?
laws in which offenders suffered punishments similar to their crimes. featured in the code of hammurabi.
Theocracy is a form of government where
Kings served as leaders and high preists.
The phoenicians were?
prosperius based on their idea of sea trade and commercial networks. they were city states along mediterranean coasts.
Who built the harappan society?
Who were the dravidians?
dark skinned sedentary (inactive) inhabitants of Harappa
What is Pakrit?
an everyday language in the indus valley civilization which evolved into hindi
What was the oldest work of the Indus Valley?
Rig Veda, the vedas
The lawbook of manu showed that indian society was a ____.
Who founded the xia dynasty?
In which dynasty was bronze metallurgy introduced?
All three RVC's were what kind of religion:
Who conquered babylonia?
what were the cities of the assyrian kingdom?
assur and nivevah