5460 exam 3

1937 wedding dress for Wallis Simpson in wedding to King Edward
*he destroyed the pattern after finishing the dress
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Terms in this set (30)
-American illustrator from Chicago
-became editor-in-chief of French Vogue post-WWI
-used Vogue expertise to open couture house in 1930
-garments were effortlessly chic and favored by high society
-served as an intelligence officer in France in WWI
-anticipating Nazi invasion, moved to New York and opened a salon in 1940
-largely responsible for change of silhouette in 30s
-pioneered nipped "wasp waist" even before Dior's New Look
-American designer
-outspoken critic of the fashion industry
-champion of RTW
-union organizer
-champion of gender equality
-political activist
-"tarts" dresses that featured suggestive arrows
-championed dress reform
-encouraged women to wear pants and men to wear robes and bright colors
-eventually shunned from the fashion industry when the FBI called all of her professional connections and informed them that she was politically radical
-New York designer
-created extremely glamorous designs for Hollywood stars, that took people from actresses to movie stars
-tenured chief designer for MGM
-at the height of his career, his designs were the most copied in the world
-successful because of his ability to transform high fashion trends of Paris into a personalized costume for a star that lit up the screen
-Eugenie hat created for "Romance" film set trend for millinery styles for the rest of the decade
Everyone had a hat at all times, and remember some colleges were integrated during the Great Depression (Berea College was the first)
East Coast:
-continued trend of more flamboyant dress for college students
-extravagantly wide-leg trousers (continuation of Oxford bags style)
-sweater vests
Middle America:
-more in keeping with general trends
-ties were very thin
Gable did not wear an undershirt and revealed his bare chest; subsequently, the sale of men's undershirts tanked, reportedly losing up to 75% of sales. After this, Gable became an enemy of the cotton industry and underwear manufacturers, and film companies started requiring their male leads to wear undershirts at all times.What was the impact of Clark Gable undressing in "It Happened One Night"?tails and tuxedos were still evening wear standard not everyone could afford to own expensive evening wear during the Great Depression; this is when the rental market for clothing first came around white dinner jackets and mess jackets debuted; mostly popular in resort areas like Palm Beach and CannesWhat changes took place in evening wear for men during the 1930s?jeans for women!! this is the first time we see jeans being worn for fashion, rather than just for work. people with money liked to go to dude ranches for vacation, and would dress like cowboys while thereWhat did Levi's introduce in the 1930s?-in 1940 Nazi forces took control of France, including its textile and apparel industries -Paris fashion industry was cut off from the rest of the world -the archives of Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne were seized, which held a lot of private information on haute couture houses and their clientele -Lucien Lelong negotiated with Nazis and convinced them not to dismantle CSCP and allow French couturiers to remain in Paris -many couture houses closedWhat happened to haute couture in Paris with the start of WWII?EXTREMELY IMPORTANT!!!!! Lelong was president of the CSCP at this time. Nazi invaders wanted to seize Paris fashion houses and their property and relocate the entire industry to Berlin which likely would have resulted in the deaths of thousands of Parisian garment workers. Lelong negotiated with the Nazis and convinced them to allow Parisian houses to remain in France, designing while under Nazi rule. This displeased a lot of the allies, but ultimately saved the lives of thousands in the industry.What role did Lucien Lelong play during WWII?-with Paris being cut off from the rest of the world by German invasion, America and other European countries had to look within for design inspiration -due to rationing and availability of materials, fashion went in a much more minimalistic, practical direction -military uniforms had a heavy influence on fashion, especially with some women being in the serviceWhat overall impact did WWII have on fashion?-rationing for petrol began in 1939 for the British, with food rationing following soon after -rationing for clothing began in 1941 in the UK, and did not end until 1949When did rationing begin?London organization that encourage designers to design and sell products abroad Members included: Edward Molyneux Hardie Amies Norman Hartnell Digby Morton Victor StiebelIncorporated Society of London Fashion DesignersISLFD was invited to design clothes that would meet ration restrictions, such as fabric amounts and number of buttons. patterns were made available for mass production; bore CC41 Utility labelUtility Collection of 1942to reduce the fabric used in women's clothing by 15%What was the goal of Order L-85?wool, cotton, silk, nylon, rubberWhat fibers were on restriction in the US during WWII?Mainbocher (WAVES uniforms)Which designer designed uniforms for women in the military?-cork wedges are introduced to get around heel restrictions -as leather shoes were rationed, designers made shoes from cork, raffia, hemp, and other natural fibers to avoid shoe rationingWhat impact did war rationing have on women's shoe styles?-as men were deployed, women took over jobs in the factories, where skirts and dresses posed work hazards -nylon was rationed and there was a lack of stockings -women could wear their husbands' old work clothes to the factories to save their clothing rations for more important occasionsWhy did more women start wearing pants during WWII?bridal gowns, maternity clothes, and religious vestmentsWhat clothing was exempt from certain rationing rules in the US?-looked at his dresses as works of art -in many ways, he was a sculptor -sometimes called the first American couturier -designs were very structuredDescribe Charles James-simple but sophisticated designs -became leading New York designer during WWII -first New York designer to show a full collection -first recipient of Coty Fashion Award -volunteered in wounded soldier hospitals on weekends during WWIIDescribe Norman Norell-founder of American RTW -introduced the wrap-around "popover" dress -easy to wear designs made of cotton denim, seersucker, and jersey -considered the inventor of the "American look"Describe Claire McCardell-they mostly continue to wear the same clothes -adaptation of military clothing into everyday wardrobe -more casual look becomes acceptable, including Hawaiian shirtsWhat happens to men's fashion following WWII?acrylic (imitates wool) polyester triacetate lycra/spandexWhat fibers came about during the fiber revolution?