23 terms

APUSH Unit 5 Terms

AP US History terms for Unit 5: Age of Jackson

Terms in this set (...)

"Corrupt Bargain" of 1824
John Quincy Adam's appointment of Henry Clay, who had endorsed his presidential bid, to Secretary of State caused an uproar among Andrew Jackson's supporters, who believed that Clay and Adams had made a dishonest deal to get Adams into office—Clay scratching Adams' back by giving him the presidential nod, and Adams returning the favor with a prime position in his cabinet.
Spoils System
The practice of appointing one's supporters to staff positions; a system of political back scratching. Although Jackson did not employ the Spoils System on the grand scale as some who followed him as chief executive, he certainly had a hand in developing its practice.
Whig Party (National-Republicans)
Between 1824 and 1828, the supporters of each candidate polarized into two political parties. This party supported John Quincy Adams. Its roots were firmly entrenched in Alexander Hamilton's Federalist ideals, including supporting a national bank and a strong central government that would finance improvements within United States borders. The Whig Party believed that a strong federal government could—and should—use its power to resolve society's concerns.
Democratic Party (Democratic-Republicans)
The other party (1824-1828) worked to get Jackson elected. In accordance with the "common man" ideals, Democrats denounced Henry Clay's "American System" and supported states' rights. Democrats also defended the Spoils System as a necessary element of an efficient government.
Tariff of 1828
A high tariff on manufactured items such as wool and textiles. Southerners felt they were being treated unfairly and rallied against this law and against Jackson himself.
South Carolina Exposition
The South Carolina legislature published this pamphlet, which offered persuasive arguments for nullifying the Tariff of 1828, stating that it was unjust and unconstitutional. South Carolina didn't nullify the Tariff of 1828, but when the Tariff of 1832 passed, the South Carolina legislature nullified the tariff, which would affect the entire union. In fact, the legislature went further by, among other actions, threatening to secede from the Union if the tariffs were not reduced.
John C. Calhoun
The Vice President of the United States and author of the South Carolina Exposition, this man grew up in South Carolina and supported the efforts to nullify the Tariff of 1828. He disagreed strongly with Andrew Jackson on many points, including states rights, nullification, and federal aid to local projects. He supported all of these and took a sectionalistic view; Jackson opposed them and took a nationalistic view.
Nullification Proclamation
Shortly after his re-election, in his annual message on December 4, 1832, Jackson stated his intention to enforce the Tariff of 1832, although he also encouraged Congress to reduce the burdensome tariff rates. Jackson followed his speech six days later with this document, which further denounced South Carolina's action.
Force Bill
Jackson called upon Congress to develop this law to authorize his use of army personnel to enforce the Tariff of 1832. Existing legislation already granted him that power, but Jackson felt that a new and specific bill would strengthen his case against South Carolina.
Compromise Tariff 1833
With South Carolina painted into a corner, Calhoun, who had resigned his vice presidency to lead the nullification cause, persuaded his old friend Henry Clay to help him draft a compromise proposal to solve the issue. Under Clay's plan, the high tariffs that burdened the South would be reduced by ten percent over an eight-year period.
Gold and silver coins, as opposed to paper money. In the early 1800s, the United States government only minted gold and silver coins, not paper money. The value of these coins was determined by the value of the metal in the coins themselves. People wanted a safe place to keep their savings of gold and silver coins, so they stored them in banks, which had strong vaults and other measures of security.
Wildcat Banks
In order to finance their investments, land speculators borrowed as much as they could from this kind of bank that sprang up to cater to this demand. These banks, more interested in making a fast dollar than building a secure banking business, applied excessive loan practices that caused many more banknotes to be in circulation in the United States than there were deposits to cover them. Confidence in banknotes dropped, causing them to lose value, and more of them were needed to purchase the same amount of goods.
2nd Bank of the United States
In order to control the wildcat banks, the federal government to charter this bank in 1816. All federal funds were deposited in the Bank making it a powerful source of investment capital, and its federal charter extended its reach throughout the states and into the frontier. The government intended that the Bank's size and consistent practices would help regulate the speculative frontier banks.
Nicholas Biddle
The head of the Second Bank of the United States. He effectively forced smaller banks to refrain from excessive printing of banknotes, a major contributor to inflation. Some people, however, felt that the Bank, and in particular its president, had too much power to restrict the speculative and potentially profitable business dealings of smaller banks.
Five Civilized Tribes
The Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles tried to live in harmony with their white neighbors, who called them this name. By 1830, many Indians had given up nomadic hunting and had adopted a more settled way of life.
This Cherokee devised the Cherokee syllabic alphabet of 85 characters so that his people could write down and preserve their thoughts. With a written language, the Cherokee were able to publish their own newspaper, The Cherokee Phoenix.
Cherokee National Council
The governing body that the Cherokees established. In 1808, they developed a legal system, and in 1827 they wrote a constitution enacting a system of tribal government to regulate affairs within the borders of their lands. Their government included an electoral system and a legislative, judicial, and executive branch. One tenet of the constitution was that on their own lands the Cherokee were not subject to the laws of Georgia. Treaties with the U.S. government recognized the Cherokee Nation, but the State of Georgia objected to having an independent Indian nation within its boundaries and passed legislation claiming jurisdiction over the Cherokee Nation in 1828.
Indian Removal Act 1830
Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which provided for the resettlement of all 100,000 Native Americans, including all of the Five Civilized Tribes, east of the Mississippi to a newly defined Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
In this court case in 1831, the Cherokees fought for defense against the Indian Removal Act and against the Georgia Legislature's nullification of Cherokee laws. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokee had "an unquestionable right" to their lands, but that they were "not a foreign state, in the sense of the Constitution" but rather a "domestic, dependent nation" and so could not sue in a United States court over Georgia's voiding their right to self-rule. Although this was a blow to the Cherokee case against Georgia, it cast doubt on the constitutionality of the Indian Removal Act.
Worcester v. Georgia
In this 1832 court case, the Supreme Court reversed itself and ruled that the State of Georgia could not control the Cherokee within their territory. The case revolved around two missionaries, Samuel Austin Worcester and Elizur Butler, who were welcomed by the Cherokee but who had not obtained a license under Georgia law to live on Cherokee lands. Worcester and Butler, unlicensed missionaries welcomed by the Cherokee, disobeyed Georgia's orders to take an oath of allegiance to the state or leave Cherokee land.
Black Hawk War
In this Indian conflict, Chief Black Hawk, along with a faction from the tribes, returned in 1832 to their Illinois lands and conducted a campaign of raids and ambushes. The United States Army responded and violently suppressed what the government considered an Indian insurrection. Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned in St. Louis in 1833.
Seminole War
In the bloodiest Indian conflict in U.S. history, the Seminoles, ordered to merge with their ancestral enemy, the Creeks, for relocation, retreated to the swamps of the Everglades, where they fought a bitter and protracted war with the United States Army, killing 1.500 US soldiers in seven years (1835-1842). Three thousand Seminoles were then forced to relocate to Oklahoma in a bitter forced march, but another 1,000 hid in the Everglades and continued to fight for five more years.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to make a grueling march in the winter of 1838-39. Many died under the poor management and atrocious conditions.