31 terms

APUSH Unit 6 Terms

AP US History terms for Unit 6: Age of Reason and Age of Reform
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Age of Reason
Written by Thomas Paine in 1794, it advocated the religious philosophy of Deism. He disliked churches and made this fact clear in his book.
Deism
This philosophy claimed that human nature was essentially good and that everyone had a chance at salvation. They believed that though God created the world, he now no longer interferes in its affairs and allows matters to run their course.
Unitarians
a formal expression of Deism. They believed in a single divine deity, the Supreme Being, in free will, in salvation through good works, and in moral nature of humans.
Romanticism
This philosophy revered nature and felt that contemplation of natural scenes would lead to realization of fundamental truths. It inspired many great works of literature.
Transcendentalism
a formalization of the Romantic Movement. It infused Romantic impulse with mysticism, a belief in the possibility of direct communion with God and knowledge of ultimate reality through spiritual insight.
Inner Light
a belief held by Quakers that every believer had a(n) [term here], which expresses itself as divine intuition or knowledge unaccountable by ordinary derivations of thought.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
left the Unitarian pulpit to travel in Europe and talk to Romantic writers and philosophers. Then he returned to America and wrote.
Oversoul
the Transcendentalists' name for God. They believed they could receive special knowledge from the [term here] through their Inner Light.
American Scholar
given by Ralph Emerson, it exhorted Americans to be original in their literature and art. He stressed self-reliance, individualism, optimism, and freedom.
Henry David Thoreau
a Transcendentalist, he wrote very profound and influential essays. He wrote Walden: Or Life in the Woods. His resistance to pay taxes for the Mexican War because of his abhorrence of slavery got him jailed for a brief amount of time.
Second Great Awakening
a religious movement started in New England. It produced a mass revival of Christianity throughout the country and often included camp meetings; events consisting of fellowship, sermons, conversions, and relaxation.
Charles Finney
a prominent preacher, his revivals converted thousands wherever he went. He preached that salvation could be had by anyone through faith and good works, that people were captains of their own fates, and that they should hurry to save themselves and their loved ones.
Brook Farm
an attempted utopia that was to be a transcendental literary and intellectual haven, suffered from indebtedness because of its residents' laziness.
Shakers
lived in communities founded by Ann Lee that practiced strict sexual abstinence because they believed that the Apocalypse was imminent and there was no need to propagate the species. They admired simplicity and enjoyed building buildings and furniture with harmonious designs. Though they had as many as 20 communities, they eventually died.
Oneida Colony
practiced free love, birth control, and eugenic selection of parents. Because other Americans despised them, their colony had to move several times. John Noyes, the leader, insisted that selfishness was the root of unhappiness; therefore, every woman was married to every man. They shared work equally and manufactured things such as steel traps, silk thread, and silver-plated tableware. Eventually they evolved into a joint-stock corporation.
Joseph Smith
the creator of the Mormon faith, he claimed to have had a vision to begin a new church. The colony was cooperative with nature, efficient, and successful, but they were constantly forced to move. While they were in jail for the practice of polygamy, he and his brother were killed by a mob. Brigham Young became the new leader and eventually they went to Utah and founded Salt Lake City. They went on to make Utah a state.
Age of Reform
the decades prior to the Civil War. It was a time of political and economic change. Many Americans felt that traditional values were being undermined by the emerging industrial and market economy and supported humanitarian and social reforms to combat it.
Thomas Gallaudet
opened the first American school for the deaf at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1817. His son, Edward, founded what became Gallaudet University, which served the deaf and mute.
Dorothea Dix
a stalwart for improvements for the mentally impaired. She had a great influence on governmental policy with regards to the physically and mentally impaired.
Horace Mann
the leading figure in the public school movement. He served as secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education and was the driving force behind better school buildings, expanded curricula, and improved teacher training and higher salaries.
Catharine Beecher
encouraged women to enter the teaching profession because of their maternal instinct. By 1850 most elementary school teachers were women, though often they were hired because they could be paid less than men.
American Temperance Union
led by John B. Gough, it began touring the country, speaking to crowds of "drowned drunkards." They wrote songs and stories to discourage the use of alcohol and alcoholism. Their stories tended to be melodramatic and perhaps somewhat unrealistic. Maine was the first state to prohibit the sale of alcohol in 1851.
Republican Motherhood
After the Revolution mothers were looked to to act as the guardians of morality and benevolence.
Cult of Domesticity
the role of women as being the keeper of the house and the primary influence on their children. While many women, such as Catharine Beecher, were satisfied with their calling, others found it to be confining and were dissatisfied with making sandwiches and washing clothes and joined movements.
Seneca Falls Declaration (Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions)
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized a convention that declared the rights of women to be those of men and listed grievances against their gender. One demand was that women be allowed to vote.
Susan B. Anthony
an unmarried Quaker who had been active in the temperance movement and assumed the leadership role in the drive for legal equality and the right to vote.
American Colonization Society
an abolition movement presided over by Judge Bushrod Washington. Henry Clay was another abolitionist.
David Walker
a free black who was one of the Freedom's Journal's agents. He published a radical pamphlet that rejected colonization and warned whites of the dangers if blacks had to fight for their freedom.
Nat Turner
a literate slave who led about two-dozen followers on a bloody rampage in Virginia in 1831. About 60 whites were killed and Turner was executed.
William Lloyd Garrison
he demanded immediate, uncompensated emancipation, and equal rights for black Americans. He called on the Northern states to secede if slavery was not abolished in the South. He served as the first president of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Frederick Douglass
a great African American abolitionist and speaker. Self educated, he founded the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper.
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