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44 terms

Bio Final

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The most accurate meaning of the term evolution is
Change
The basic difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell is that the eukaryotic cell
possesses membrane-bound organelles
The studies of which geologist indicated a much greater age of the Earth than had veeb proposed before?
Lyell
The first self-replicating molecules were probably
RNA
Who first disproved the "maggots from meat" hypothesis?
Francisco Redi
Who disproved the "broth to microorganisms" hypothesis?
Louis Pasteur
The earliest fossils resemble modern
prokaryotes
Where did most of the oxygen in our atmosphere come from?
photosynthesis
_________ may have evolved from aerobic bacteria and __________ may have evolved from cyanobacteria that were engulfed by predatory prokaryotic cells
mitochondria; chloroplasts
About 530 million years ago, fish became the dominant predators of the sea because of the evolution of
internal skeleton
The first land plants were restricted to moist, marshy environments because of
reproductive cell requirements
__________ eliminated the need for water in plant reproduction
pollen
The earlist group of land plants whose reproduction did not require water for swimming sperm were the...
conifers
The fossil evidence indicates that amphibians evolved from...
fish
What group of vertebrates was the first to evolve a waterproof egg?
reptiles
The first terrestrial animals were
arthropods
Primitive fish called ______ were probably the ancestors of both modern bony fish and _____
lobefins; amphibians
Birds and mammals have similar forelimbs, four-chambered hearts, and a notochord at some stage of development. These similarities are BEST explained by...
a common ancestry
A bat's wing and a sheep's front leg are ______ structures
homologous
The human appendix is an example of a(n)
vestigial structure
The biological species concept cannot be applied to
extinct organisms
When there is no gene flow into a population, the population is said to be
isolated
Darwin was influenced by an essay on the limits to human population growth written by
Malthus
The theory that "organisms can modify their bodies through use or disuse of parts, and these modifications can be passed onto their offspring" was formulated by
Lamarck
The wings of insects and bats are _________ structures
analogous
Squirrels separated by canyon. If no longer the same species, it's a result of
allopatric speciation
Blue-footed boobies need specific courtship dance. What keeps the mating within the species?
Behavioral isolation
Moss species produce gametes at different times of year. Example of _________ isolating mechanism.
temporal
Fig wasps live and mate within same species of fig. This is...
ecological isolation
Inability of sperm to fertilize eggs of different species is called...
gametic incompatibility
Horses and donkeys mate to make mules. Mules are infertile. Called...
hybrid infertility
When hybrid organisms don't live long
Hybrid inviability
Two populations become geographically separated from each other and then genetically diverge
allopatric speciation
When a species invades a new habitat and evolves rapidly into several new species to better exploit new resources, what has occurred?
adaptive radiation
The hominids originally evolved in
Africa
What is the significance of upright walking?
It frees the hands for gathering and carrying food
The hobbit-sized hominid whose fossilized remains were recently discovered on a remote oceanic island was a
Homo floresiensis
Genes are
segments of DNA
Biodiversity is
the assortment and interactions of species on Earth
The idea of uniformitarianism suggests what about the geological record and age of the Earth?
Natural processes occurring over long periods of time accounted for the thick layers of rock where fossils are found, rather than cataclysmic events
Which of the following pairs is most distantly related
bacteria and archaea
Which of the following would have prevented the development of conditions favorable for the evolution of life after Earth was formed?
unbound, or free, oxygen molecules
What chemicals were produced by Stanley Miller and other researchers in their experiments investigating the origin of life?
BOTH: amino acids and ATP AND short proteins and nucleotides
A likely group of organisms in which to look for cases of sympatric speciation would be
parasitic intestinal worms