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The most accurate meaning of the term evolution is


The basic difference between a prokaryotic cell and a eukaryotic cell is that the eukaryotic cell

possesses membrane-bound organelles

The studies of which geologist indicated a much greater age of the Earth than had veeb proposed before?


The first self-replicating molecules were probably


Who first disproved the "maggots from meat" hypothesis?

Francisco Redi

Who disproved the "broth to microorganisms" hypothesis?

Louis Pasteur

The earliest fossils resemble modern


Where did most of the oxygen in our atmosphere come from?


_________ may have evolved from aerobic bacteria and __________ may have evolved from cyanobacteria that were engulfed by predatory prokaryotic cells

mitochondria; chloroplasts

About 530 million years ago, fish became the dominant predators of the sea because of the evolution of

internal skeleton

The first land plants were restricted to moist, marshy environments because of

reproductive cell requirements

__________ eliminated the need for water in plant reproduction


The earlist group of land plants whose reproduction did not require water for swimming sperm were the...


The fossil evidence indicates that amphibians evolved from...


What group of vertebrates was the first to evolve a waterproof egg?


The first terrestrial animals were


Primitive fish called ______ were probably the ancestors of both modern bony fish and _____

lobefins; amphibians

Birds and mammals have similar forelimbs, four-chambered hearts, and a notochord at some stage of development. These similarities are BEST explained by...

a common ancestry

A bat's wing and a sheep's front leg are ______ structures


The human appendix is an example of a(n)

vestigial structure

The biological species concept cannot be applied to

extinct organisms

When there is no gene flow into a population, the population is said to be


Darwin was influenced by an essay on the limits to human population growth written by


The theory that "organisms can modify their bodies through use or disuse of parts, and these modifications can be passed onto their offspring" was formulated by


The wings of insects and bats are _________ structures


Squirrels separated by canyon. If no longer the same species, it's a result of

allopatric speciation

Blue-footed boobies need specific courtship dance. What keeps the mating within the species?

Behavioral isolation

Moss species produce gametes at different times of year. Example of _________ isolating mechanism.


Fig wasps live and mate within same species of fig. This is...

ecological isolation

Inability of sperm to fertilize eggs of different species is called...

gametic incompatibility

Horses and donkeys mate to make mules. Mules are infertile. Called...

hybrid infertility

When hybrid organisms don't live long

Hybrid inviability

Two populations become geographically separated from each other and then genetically diverge

allopatric speciation

When a species invades a new habitat and evolves rapidly into several new species to better exploit new resources, what has occurred?

adaptive radiation

The hominids originally evolved in


What is the significance of upright walking?

It frees the hands for gathering and carrying food

The hobbit-sized hominid whose fossilized remains were recently discovered on a remote oceanic island was a

Homo floresiensis

Genes are

segments of DNA

Biodiversity is

the assortment and interactions of species on Earth

The idea of uniformitarianism suggests what about the geological record and age of the Earth?

Natural processes occurring over long periods of time accounted for the thick layers of rock where fossils are found, rather than cataclysmic events

Which of the following pairs is most distantly related

bacteria and archaea

Which of the following would have prevented the development of conditions favorable for the evolution of life after Earth was formed?

unbound, or free, oxygen molecules

What chemicals were produced by Stanley Miller and other researchers in their experiments investigating the origin of life?

BOTH: amino acids and ATP AND short proteins and nucleotides

A likely group of organisms in which to look for cases of sympatric speciation would be

parasitic intestinal worms

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