BIO 181 - Dr. Grant Test 2
Terms in this set (78)
Any group of individuals , usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same time.
What factors affect population and how and why a population changes over time. Studies the structure and dynamics.
The measurement of population per unit area or unit volume.
The properties of the rate of growth and the age structure of populations.
The maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment in an organism; usually involves some form of feedback self-regulation.
Demonstrate how survival probability changes with age.
an action that aids survival; some help animals escape danger; some help animals find mates.
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate.
A way of measuring how much of an impact a person or community has on the earth.
total distance a population can survive in; geographical limitations: abiotic and biotic factors(temp, rainfall, food, predators, etc.) and habitat.
Life Table of a Cohort
a table providing data on the number of same-aged young alive.
A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other.
The study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization.
The number of species in a biological community.
A species that is critical to the functioning of the ecosystem in which it lives because it affects the survival and abundance of many other species in its community.
Rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem.
The gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established.
An organism's role in an ecosystem - includes things like diet, reproductive method, role in a food web, etc.
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time.
An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time.
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species.
Species that compete for the same resources within the same territory tend to diverge in morphology/behavior.
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species.
Process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
Camouflage, making potential prey difficult to spot against its background
Gaining protection by looking and acting like a different species
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment
Organisms that produce organic compounds from inorganic compounds such as atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide, principally through the process of photosynthesis.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
Each step in a food chain or food web
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
Pyramid of Numbers
Representation of the number of individual organisms in each trophic level of an ecosystem
Pyramid of Biomass
A pyramid that illustrates the total mass of all the organisms in a trophic level.
Pyramid of Energy
A pyramid that shows the total amount of energy available at each trophic level.
Energy Flow Diagram
A graphical representation of the energy transfers that occur during a chemical or physical change.
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
An extremely cold, dry biome.
A structure of calcite skeletons built up by coral animals in warm, shallow ocean water.
Increase in concentration of certain stable chemicals (for example, heavy metals or fat-soluble pesticides) in successively higher trophic levels of a food chain or web
A fat soluble pesticide used to control insects that is potentially harmful to other animals, it has been banned in the United States
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
An increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Tropical Rain Forest
Biome near the equator with warm temperatures, wet weather, and lush plant growth
orientation of the water by temperature in a lake or pond where less dense, warmer water positions over the top of more dense, cooler water to form a layering affect
a thinning of stratospheric ozone that occurs over the poles during the spring.
Population growth that is controlled by limited resources.
Reproduction in which an organism produces all of its offspring in a single event; also known as big-bang reproduction.
A life history in which adults produce large numbers of offspring over many years; also known as repeated reproduction.
environmental effects on birth and death rates that increase or decrease based on population size
often environmental, droughts, floods, habitat destruction
Succession that begins an area with no remnants of an older community
Changes that occur after a disturbance in an existing ecosystem.
Competition between individuals of the same species
Competition between members of different species
An organism that makes its own food
An organism that eats producers
An organism that eats primary consumers
An organism that eats only plants.
Consumers that eat only animals
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Gross Primary Production (GPP)
Rate at which an ecosystem's producers capture and store an amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time.
Net Primary Production (NPP)
the gross primary production of an ecosystem minus the energy used by the producers for respiration.
interactions among living things
interactions between organisms and their nonliving environment
An extremely dry area with little water and few plants
A tropical grassland biome with scattered individual trees, large herbivores, and three distinct seasons based primarily on rainfall, maintained by occasional fires and drought.
A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
open ocean of any depth; animals in this zone swim or float freely
Cyclic movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment
CO2 -> Absorbed by leaf -> Primary consumer eats leaf -> Higher consumer eats primary -> They die and decomposers eat the CO2.
78% of atmosphere, limiting nutrient b/c its essential in proteins/nucleic acids/chlorophyll - fixation > nutrification > assimilation > ammonification > denitrification
The continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back. The processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation make up the water cycle.