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Finals critical thinking

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (80)

1. Confirmation bias
which refers to the tendency to attach more weight to evidence that supports our viewpoint.

2. Heuristics
General rules we unconsciously follow in estimating probabilities.
*Availability heuristics
assigning probability to an event based on how easily or frequently it is thought of.
e.g if the probability of an airplane crashes where to increase then one might well think about airplane crashes more often but it does not follow that if one thinks about them more often.

3. Bandwagon effect
unconscious tendency to align one's thinking with that of other people.
potentially a powerful source of cognitive distortion
- is potentially a powerful source of cognitive distortion

e.g
student takes quizzes using smartphones and clicks with software that instantly displays the opinion of the class in a bar graph projected on a screen. Not frequently it happens that, if opinion begins to build for one answer, almost everyone switches to that opinion-even if it is incorrect or illogical.

4. Negativity bias
Attaching more weight to negative information than positive information

5. Loss aversion
being strongly motivated to avoid a loss than to positive information.

6. In-group bias
we find easier to form negative opinions of people who don't belong to our club, church, party, nationality, or other group.

7. Overconfidence effect
One several self deception biases that may be found in a variety of context

e.g Many contestants in American idol competition they convinced that they will be the next American Idol and are speechless when the judges inform them they cannot so much as carry as tune