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Normal vision


What are the light rays refracted by?

By the lens and cornea then to the photoreceptors of the retina.


Defect of the curvature of the cornea or the lens.

What do concave lens fix?

Concave lens separate the light rays(divergence.) So the concave lens fix eyes that are nearsightedness. The lens of concave eyes create a "u" formation.

What do convex lens fix?

Convex lens cross the light rays (convergence). So the convex lens fix eyes that are farsightedness. The lens of the convex eyes form a round bowl protruding out.

Why does farsightedness (hyperopia) occurs?

When someone is farsightedness the image is focused behind the retina because the eyeball is too short.

Due to natural aging process, what does this cause lens to do?

The lens' elasticity decreases, which causes people to slowly not have the ability to see nearby or closeup objects.

Hereditary defects in color vision result from lack of what?

Certain cones needed to absorb certain wavelengths of light.

What is the purpose of visual acuity test? And what is used for testing?

To test the sharpness of vision. A chart called, Snellen Eye Chart is used.

What is the consequence of an astigmatism?

Some of the portions of an image projected on the retina are sharply focused, but other parts are blurred.

What is the astigmatism testing? What is used?

The test is testing if an individual has an astigmatism, testing if there is a defect in the curvature in the cornea or the lens.


the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.

What is the accommodation testing?

Testing the elasticity of the eye. The accommodation involves a reflex which involves the muscles of the ciliary body. Relaxing the tension of the suspensory ligaments that are attached to the lens. this causes the surface to become convex.

Normal accommodation for people around the age of 20 is what?

10 cm of points

What does the color vision test? What is used?

Test if the person was born lacking cones causing to be sensitive to reds or greens. The Ishihara's book is used to test any red-green defects.

protanopia colorblindness

possess decreased sensitivity to the red-sensitive cones

deuteranopia colorblindess

possess decreased sensitivity to green-sensiive cones

What is blind-spot demonstration?

Demonstrating that proves that the optic nerve does not possess any photoreceptors.

Name and define the three reflexes: Photopupillary reflex, accommodation pupillary reflex, and convergence reflex.

photopupillary reflex= smooth muscles controlling the size of the pupil.
accommodation pupillary reflex= pupil constricts as a normal accommodation reflex to focus on close objects.
convergence reflex= eyes converge as normal convergence reflex to focus on close objects.

Posterior 5/6 this of middle (vascular) tunic

choroid coat

white part of outer (fibrous) tunic


Transparent anterior portion of outer tunic


inner lining of eyelid


secretes tears

lacrimal gland

fills posterior cavity of eye

vitreous humor

area where optic nerve exits the eye

optic disc

smooth muscle that controls light entering the eye


fills anterior and posterior chambers of the anterior cavity of the eye

aqueous humor

contains visual receptors called rods and cones


connects lens to ciliary body

suspensory ligament

cause lens to change shape

ciliary muscles

List the structures and fluids through which light passes as it travels from the cornea to the retina.

CORNEA, aqueous humor, PUPIL OF IRIS, lens, VITREOUS HUMOR, retina

How are the rods and cones different?

Rods= dimlight (night time) & black/white colors & more of rods than cones
Cones= bright light & see color

what kind of tissues do you think is responsible for this quality of toughness that cause cutting a layer of the eye difficult?

dense fibers of C.T.

where do you find aqueous humor in the dissected eye?

behind cornea and lens

what is the function of the dark pigment in the choroid coat?

dark pigment absorbs all the excess light

Where is conjunctiva located?

Located outside the cornea

The eye contains what, modified neurons located on its inner wall.


Name in order the labeling of the lacrimal apparatus.

lacrimal gland, superior and inferior canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity, and inferior nasal concha

jellylike mass helps to hold the lens in place anteriorly and helps to hold the retina against the chord coat.

vitreous humor

serves to reflect light back throughout the retina, an action thought to aid the night vision of some animals. its located on an iridescent area of the choroid coat beneath the retina.

tapetum fibrosum

The organs of static equilibrium are located within two expanded chambers called the what and the saccule.


all of the balance organs are located within the blank bone of the skull.


the receptor cells of these organs are found in the wall of the membranous labyrinth in a structure called the blank.


otoliths are small grains of composed of

calcium carbonate

sensory impulses travel from the organs of equilibrium to the brain on the blank nerve.

vestibulocochlear nerve

the sensory organ of a semicircular canal lies within a swilling of the clean called the what


the sensory organ within the ampulla of a semicircular canal is called a what?

crista ampullaris

the blank of this sensory organ consists of a dome-shaped gelatinous mass.


when the head is moved, the fluid inside the membranous portion of a semicircular canal tends to remain stationary because of the blank of the fluid.


parts of the what of the brain interpret impulses from the equilibrium receptors.


When the eyes are open what sensory organs provide information needed to maintain equilibrium?

Within the utricle and saccule of the vestibules of the inner ear.

When the eyes are open what sensory organs provide information needed to maintain equilibrium?

within the ampullae of the semicircular canals of the inner ear

aka of static equilibrium

gravitational equilibrium

aka of dynamic equilibrium

rotational equilibrium

auditory ossicle attached to tympanic membrane


air-filled space containing auditory ossicles

tympanic cavity

contacts hairs of hearing receptors

tectorial membrane

leads from oval window to apex of cochlea

scala vestibuli

s-shaped tube leading to tympanic membrane

external acoustic meatus

wax-secreting structure

ceruminous gland

cone-shaped, semitransparent membrane attached to membrane

tympanic membrane (ear drum)

auditory ossicle attached to oval window


contains endolymph

membranous labyrinth

bony canal of inner ear in temporal bone

osseous (bony) labyrinth

connects middle ear and pharynx

auditory tube

extends from apex of cochlea to round window

scala tympani

Where are hearing receptors located?

Located in the organ of corti within the inner ear

Where does the auditory impulse pass over to?

vestibulocochlear nerve into the auditory cortex of the brain.

what parts of the inner ear have the function of equilibrium

semicircular canals, utricle and saccule of vestibule

What test is use to detect if there is sensory deafness.

weber test

tast receptor cells are modified

epithelial cells

the opening to taste bud is called a

taste pore

the blank of a taste cells are its sensitive part.

taste hair

before the taste of a substance can be detected, the substance must be dissolved in

saliva or water

bitter taste are associated with


salt receptors are mainly stimulated by ionized inorganic


substances that stimulate taste cells bind with

receptor sites on the surface of taste hairs.

the olfactory interpreting centers are located deep within the temporal lobes and at the base of the blank lobes of the cerebrum


a chemical would be considered blank if a person lacks a particular receptor site on the cilia of the olfactory neurons.


olfactory bulbs lie on either side of the

crista galli of the ethmoid bone

the axons of olfactory receptors pass through small openings in the blank of the ethmoid bone.

cribiform plate

distal ends of the olfactory neurons are covered with hairlike blank


Olfactory, or smell receptors are blank neuron surrounded by columnar epithelial cells.

bipolar neurons

umami sensation is associated with

aspartic and glutamic acids

structure formed by the crossing over of optic nerves

optic chiasma

part of diencephalon that forms lower walls and floor of third ventricle


cone-shaped structure attached to upper posterior portion of diencephalon

pineal gland

connects cerebral hemispheres

corpus callosum

ridge on surface of cerebrum


separates frontal and parietal lobes

central sulcus

parto of brainstem between diencephalon and pons


rounded bulge on underside of brainstem


a layer of dura mater that separates cerebellar hemispheres

falx cerebelli

cerebral lobe located deep within lateral sulcus


thin layer of gray matter on surface of cerebrum

cerebral cortex

trigeminal nerve

stimulates superior oblique eye muscle

abducens nerve

lateral eye movement

optic nerve

vision and opening eyes

oculomotor nerve

pupil constriction and open eye lid, moving eyes

hypoglossal nerve

control tongue movements

are routes followed by nerve impulses as they pass through the nervous system

nerve pathway

interneurons in a withdrawal reflex are located in the

spinal cord

are automatic subconscious responses to external or internal stimuli


the effector muscle of patellar reflex

quadricep femoris

the normal plantar reflex results in

flexion of toes

stroking the sole of the foot in infants results in dorsflexion and toes that spread apart, called the

bobinski reflex

sensory receptors of a withdrawal reflex are located in the


effectors of a reflex are glands and


band of pia mater that anchors dura mater to cord

denticulate ligament

channel though which venous blood flow

dural sinus

separates dura mater from bone of vertebra

epidural space

contains cerebrospinal fluid

subarachnoid space

ascending tract to the brain to interpret touch, pressure and body movements

lateral spinothalamic

descending tract whose fibers conduct motor impulses to sweat glands and muscles to control tone


descending tract whose fibers conduct motor impulses to skeletal muscles


ascending tract to the cerebellum necessary for coordination of skeletal muscles

posterior spinocerebellar

ascending tract to the brain to give rise to sensations of temperature and pain

fasciculus gracilis

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