33 terms

AP Environmental Science Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Mr. Zwanzig
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ecosystem diversity
the variety of ecosystems within a given region
species diversity
the variety of species within an ecosystem
genetic diversity
the variety of genes within a species
species richness
the number of species in a given area (approximate sense of biodiversity)
species eveness
the proportions of species within the different species (whether a particular ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or whether species have a similar abundance)
phylogenies
branching patterns of evolutionary relationships
evolution
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time
microevolution
evolution below the species level, such as the evolution of different variations of apples or potatoes
macroevolution
when genetic changes give rise to a new species, or to new genera, families, classes, or phyla--larger categories of organisms in which species are organized
genes
physical locations on chromosomes within each cell of an organism that determine the range of possible traits that can be passed down to offspring
genotype
the complete set of genes in an individual
mutation
a random change caused by an occasional mistake in the copying process
recombination
when chromosomes are duplicated during reproductive cell division and a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
phenotype
the actual set of traits expressed in the individual
evolution by artificial selection
when humans determine which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mind
evolution by natural selection
the environment determines which individuals survive and reproduce
fitness
the ability to survive and reproduce
adaptations
traits that improve an individual's fitness
bottleneck effect
a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in size
founder effect
a population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals
geographic isolation
the result of a single population being split into two smaller populations as geographic barriers form over time, and two populations become genetically distinct
reproductive isolation
when the two populations are separated by not only geographic isolation, and they will be so different that ieven if the physical barrier is removed, they could no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring
allopatric speciation
the process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation
sympatric speciation
the evolution of one species into two species in the absence of geographic isolation
genetic engineering
techniques in which scientists copy genes from a species with desirable traits and insert these genes into another organism
genetically modified organism
an organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable trait and inserting them into another species
fundamental niche
the suite of ideal conditions of a species
realized niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
distribution
the areas in the world in which the species lives
niche generalists
organisms that live on a variety of habitats and feed on a variation of species
niche specialists
organisms specialized to live in a specific habitat or feed on a small group of species
fossils
the remains of an organism tht have been preserved in a rock
mass extinction
when large amounts of species go extinct over relatively short periods of time