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Final exam

Why do we have seasons on earth?

As earth goes around the sun and earth's axis remains pointed toward Polaris, the Northern and Southern hemispheres alternately receive more and less direct sunlight

What is an astronomical unit?

The average distance from earth to the sun

Keplers third law, p2=a3, means that?

All of the above are correct

What conditions are required for a lunar eclipse?

The phase of the moon must be full, and the nodes of the moons orbit must be nearly aligned with earth and the sun

We describe a position on earth's surface by stating its

Latitude and longitude

He discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses


Keplers second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that

A) A planet travels faster when it is nearer to the sun and slower when it is farther from the sun.

What conditions are required for a solar eclipse?

B) The phase of the moon must be new, and the nodes of the moons orbit must be nearly aligned with earth and the sun

Why do we see essentially the same face of the moon at all times

Because the moons rotational and orbital periods are equal

All of the following statements are true. Which one explains the reason why there is not a solar eclipse at every new moon?

The orbital plane of the moon is tilted by about 5 degrees to the elliptic plane

If part of the moon passes through earth's umbra, we will see a (n)

Partial lunar eclipse

Which of the following is not a phase of the moon?

Half moon

He discovered that Jupiter has moons


According to the universal law of gravitation, if you double the masses of both attracting objects, then the gravitational force between them will

Increase by a factor of 4

Which of the following has your address in the correct order

You, earth, solar system, Milky Way, local group, local super cluster

According to the universal law of gravitation, the force due to gravity is

Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between objects

Why is it summer in the northern hemisphere when it is winter in the southern hemisphere?

The northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun and receives more direct sunlight

All of the following statements are true. Which one follows directly from Keplers third law?

Venus orbits the sun at a slower average speed than mercury

If your mass is 60kg on earth, what would be you mass on the moon


If the moon is setting at 6am the phase of the moon must be


By locating the north celestial pole in the sky, how can you determine latitude?

The altitude of the NCP is the same as your latitude

All directions are south from the North Pole


The seasons on earth are caused by its elliptical orbit around the Sun.


What is the range of star masses for high mass stars?

between 8 and 100 solar masses

On a hertzsprung-russell diagram where would we find stars that are cool and luminous?

upper right

what is teh average temperature of the surface of the sun?


What type of star is our sun?

low-mass star

What happens to energy in the convection zone of the sun?

energy is transported outward by the rising of hot plasma and the sinking of cooler plasma

At the center of the sun fusion converts hydrogen into

helium, energy, and neutrinos

What happens when the gravity of a massive star is able to overcome neutron degeneracy pressure

the core contracts and becomes a black hole

suppose you put two protons near each other because of the electromagnetic force the two protons will

repel each other

the helium fusion process results in the production of


how does a 1.2 solar mass white dwarf compare to a 1.0 solar mass white dwarf

it has a smaller radius

on a h-r diagram where on the main sequence would we find stars that have the greatest mass?

upper left

the spectral sequence in order of decreasing temperature is


what is a planetary nebula?

the expanding shell of gas that is no longer gravitationally held to the remnant of a low mass star

on a h-r diagram where would we find stars that are cool and dim?

lower right

wihch of the following is closest in mass to a white dwarf?

the sun

which layer of the sun do we normally see


white dwarfs are so called because

they are both very hot and very small

which of the following sequences correctly describes the stages of life for a low mass star?

protostar, main sequence, red giant, white dwarf

what kind of pressure supports a white dwarf

electron degeneracy pressure

compared to the star it evolved from, a white dwarf is

hotter and dimmer

why is there an upper limit to the mass of a white dwarf

the more massive the white dwarf the greater the degeneracy pressure and the faster the speeds of the electrons. near 1.4 solar masses the speeds of the electrons approach the speed of light so more mass cannot be added without breaking the degeneracy pressure

which is the following is the most common type of main sequence star

an m star

the core of the sun is at a temperature of about 20,000 k


all stars spend approximately the same amount of time on the main sequence


in any star cluster stars with lower masses greatly outnumber those with higher masses


stars with high masses live longer than stars with lower masses


there is no limit to the mass with which a star can be born


stars only form in molecular clouds that contain more than 100 times the mass of our sun


two stars both lie on the main sequence star x is a spectral type a while star y is spectral type g therefore star x is more massive than star y


all stars that become supernovae will leave behind a neutron star


spectral type, surface temperature, and color all describe the same basic characteristics of a star


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