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The practice of selling positions of the church.


A style of architecture that evolved throughout medieval Europe.

Urban II

The pope that started the holy war called the crusade.


One of the expectations in which medieval Christian warriors sought to gain control of the holy land from the Muslims.


A Kurdish warrior and most famous Muslim leader of the 1100s.

Richard the Lion Hearted

An English king.


The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s to 1492.


A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy.


A medieval association of people working at the same occupation, which controlled its members wages and prices.

Three-Field System

a system of farming developed in medieval Eroupe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively.

Commercial Revolution

The expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th century.


A medieval merchant- class town dweller.


The everyday language of people in a region or country.

Thomas Aquinas

(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church.


Scholars who gathered and taught at Medieval European universities.

William the Conqueror

Invaded England form Normandy in 1066; extended tight feudal system to England; established administrative sytem based on sheriffd; establishing royal centralized

Henry II

In 1154, He became king of England, broadened the system of royal justice by expanding accepted customs into law and establishing royal court

Common Law

A Unified body of law formed from rulings of England's royal judges that serves of the basis of law in many English speaking countries today including the united states.

Magna Carta

this document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the


A body of representatives that makes law for a nation.

Hugh Capet

King of France elected in 987 and founding the Capetain

Philip II

Son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that


An assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes in France.


popes of this place were French, and abuse thier power in such a way that they had great financial success, but lost political power. Because

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